Environmental Technologies Industries
||Environmental Technologies Industries
|Water Pollution Prevention Equipment in Taiwan|
After four decades of rapid industrial development, Taiwan is now suffering severe environmental deterioration. Forty percent of Taiwan's rivers are polluted and water quality has been threatened. Poor management of water resources by agriculture and industry has contaminated groundwater and seriously reduced water supply in many areas. Fortunately, there is a growing public and governmental awareness of the severe level of pollution in Taiwan today. The focus of policy makers has shifted from the primary concern of increasing economic growth in the 1960s and 1970s to a more balanced consideration of the need for economic growth that takes into account both short-and long-term environmental costs. As Taiwan approaches developed-nation status, its people have started to demand a quality life commensurate with their level of economic achievement.
In recent years, Taiwan's environmental policy has become stricter in enforcement, and public campaigns to inculcate a positive attitude toward environmental protection have been sustained. By the end of 1997, Taiwan had tightened the effluent discharge rate and reorganized its environmental auditing system to ensure a stricter inspection and monitoring regime. Several projects for the improvement of water quality, as well as research on soil and groundwater contamination, have been launched. Taiwan also offers financial incentives, such as free import duties, investment credits and low-interest loans, for the purchase and installation of proper pollution control facilities. Taiwan's environmental products market is expecting an annual growth rate of 11 percent thru 2001, and the production value of the environmental protection industry should reach $4.2 billion by 2003.
Stricter enforcement of pollution regulations and upcoming publicly tendered environmental projects will continue to increase demand for foreign technology and advanced equipment into the next millennium. Most of these new opportunities will be in the private sector due to the privatization of state corporations. Gradually, all levels of government will shift their focus to environmental administration, monitoring/testing and research and development. However, the environmental protection market will continue to be highly competitive. Currently, Japan holds about 33.5 percent of the water pollution control market, which ranks first in the import market. US ranks second with 28.2 percent, and Germany is third with 13.75 percent. Other small players in the water pollution prevention market include Italy, Korea, China and United Kingdom. Local manufacturers will also play a larger role as they gain more knowledge and technical expertise in the field.
This report is an analysis of the market for water pollution control equipment in Taiwan. Relevant Harmonized System (HS) codes (see note) for this equipment are:
8413 Pumps for liquids, whether or not fitted with measuring device; liquid elevators
841350 Other reciprocating positive displacement pumps
84138190008 Other pumps for liquids
84131900004 Other pumps for liquids, fitted or designed to be fitted with a measuring device
84139100005 Parts of pumps for liquids
842121 For filtering or purifying water
84212190001 Other filtering or purifying machinery and apparatus for water
84212900002 Other filtering or purifying machinery and apparatus for liquids
842199 Other filters
84219910005 Filter elements (for instant use)
84219990008 Other parts of filtering or purifying machinery and apparatus for liquids or gases
8481 Taps, cocks, valves and similar appliances for pipes, boiler shells, tanks, vats or the like, including pressure-reducing valves and thermostatically Co
847410 Sorting, screening , separating or washing machines
848110 Pressure-reducing valves
84812000008 Valves for oleohydraulic or pneumatic transmissions
848130 Check valves
84814000004 Safety or relief valves
9027860001 pH Meter (pH meter with temperature gauge combined)
70200011009 Gauge-glasses, for boilers KGM
Taiwan, with a population of 21.7 million people, ranks as the second-most densely populated place in the world. Its major rivers, including the Tamshui, Touchien, Tachia, Kaopin and Tsengwen Rivers, and their tributaries are the primary sources of drinking water for about 75% of Taiwan's population. Despite the considerable effort to improve river water quality, the conditions of the rivers have not appreciably improved. About 40% of rivers are categorized as either lightly, medium, or heavily polluted.
Table A-1 General Quality of Major Rivers (mg/l)
DO: dissolved oxygen
BOD5: biological oxygen demand
SS: suspended solid
NH3-N: ammonium nitrate
Table A-2 Pollution Level of Major Rivers (%)
Table A-3 Level of River Pollution (mg/l)
|DO||Over 6.5||4.6~6.5||2.0~4.5||Under 2.0|
|BOD5||Under 3.0||3.0~4.9||5.0~15||Over 15|
|S.S.||Under 20||20~49||50~100||Over 100|
|NH3-N||Under 0.5||0.5~0.99||1~3||Over 30|
|Average||Under 2.0||2~3||3.1~6||Over 6.0|
(1) The average is adopted for each category of dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, suspended solid, and ammonium nitrate.
(2) For example, tests are conducted to measure the dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, suspended solid, and ammonium nitrate. If the average of the points measured in the tests or all of the four categories exceeds 6.0, the water is “heavy-polluted.”
SOURCE: Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of China 1998, Directorate-General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, November 1998.
Policies and regulations regarding water pollution control are driven by the Water Pollution Control Act and the Drinking Water Management Act. Under the Water Pollution Control Act, industries must submit a Water Pollution Control Plan to the Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency (TEPA) at the municipal government level for approval prior to establishment or modification of factories. No company may discharge wastewater or sewage into surface water unless it has obtained a permit for discharge from TEPA at the municipal government level. Companies, sewage systems or sewage treatment facilities are also required to comply with effluent discharge standards established by the TEPA at the central government level. The Drinking Water Management Act prohibits any activity that may pollute water sources, such as illegal dumping, land development, and commercial poultry and livestock operations. TEPA prescribes the implementation rules at the central government level, and the penalties for violation of the Acts are fines (up to one million New Taiwan Dollars (NT$), approximately US$31,036.6 at NT$32.22/US$1) and imprisonment. TEPA is currently working on a major revision to the Water Pollution Act to focus on the auditing and punishment systems.
According to the current auditing model, auditing personnel take on-site samples, conduct tests and issue fines as a “one-man” production line. TEPA’s Bureau of Water Quality Protection is studying systems in California and planning to strengthen the quality and the depth of auditing and enforcement. In the future, the auditing and fining system will be composed of general auditors, senior auditors and an arbitration committee. Auditing personnel must perform a background check on the target site prior to the audit. One of the goals is to make the entire enforcement process transparent to encourage legal compliance and ensure environmental pollution controls measures. The Bureau plans to improve communication between authorities and businesses as part of the enforcement process and to ensure fines better reflect the nature of the infraction.
Taiwan’s overall environmental protection strategy comprises of a command-and-control approach, economic incentives or market-based instruments, and social programs. The command- and-control approach includes establishment of environmental quality standards, emissions standards, regulatory compliance audits and penalties for illegal pollution. Economic incentives include fees/taxes, deposits, tradable pollution permits and quotas, eco-labeling and public investment. The purpose of the social program is to raise individual awareness of environmental protection. Social programs include providing environmental information, advertisements, education and monitoring opportunities.
Several projects regarding water quality improvement have been launched. An action plan for water quality improvement with a “watershed approach” is under implementation. The watershed approach looks upon the best available technology in the establishment of a pollution standard. The primary aim of this action plan is to enhance the current water quality of Taiwan’s five major rivers. The total cost of this action plan calls for a budget of NT$40.2 billion, and construction is expected to be completed in eight years. Three pollution sources, namely domestic sewage, industrial wastewater and livestock industries, account for 43.3%, 32%, and 24.7% of water environmental pollution, respectively. To mitigate sewage pollution, twelve sewerage systems will be constructed with subsidies from the central government. The total cost for this infrastructure construction is estimated to be NT$36.2 billion, and the construction is expected to be done by the year 2006.
The problem of soil and groundwater contamination has become one of the major concerns in Taiwan. Last year, Philips Electronics Factory in Hsin-Chu County was found to have high concentrations of tetrachloroethylene in its groundwater. Other industrial parks in Kuanyin, Pingchen, Chungli and Chinese Petroleum Corporation’s oil refinery are also said to have high concentrations of heavy metals in their groundwater; some test wells also revealed high concentrations of phenol carcinogens.
TEPA has allocated NT$16 million to commission the Environmental Protection Center under the Department of Environmental Protection to check each of Taiwan’s 20 industrial parks for groundwater and soil contamination. Targeted sectors include petrochemical industrial parks, gas stations, agrochemical factories and industrial parks that have received public complaints. TEPA has also accelerated development of the Groundwater Contamination Remediation Procedures and a contamination and monitoring area delineation plan. However, local government representatives have expressed their concern about inadequate funds, personnel and experience. They also claim the contamination source monitoring and polluter-submitted remediation oversight plans lack adequate technical skills and regulations and have noted that remediation standards have yet to be set. To address these problems, TEPA is considering establishing professional technical support taskforces and producing a Groundwater Contamination Hazards Manual to provide technical support skills at the local level and funds to improve remediation and technical skills.
Water Pollution Equipment Market Size, in $ millions
|Imports for U.S.|
Source: Export and import values were determined from the Monthly Statistics of Exports and Imports, December 1998, Directorate General of Customs, Taiwan Ministry of Finance. Local Production was calculated by using the following formula:
|Exchange Rate (NT$/1US$)|
|Inflation Rate (NT$/1US$)|
Total Market Size = Local Production + Import - Exports
1998 Import Market Share of Water Pollution Control Equipment
Rank Country Market Share (%)
1. Japan 33.58
2. U.S. 28.27
3. Germany 13.75
4. United Kingdom 4.75
5. Italy 3.17
6. China 3.14
7. Korea 2.36
8. India 1.96
9. France 1.67
10. Canada 1.63
Best Sales Prospects
The Industrial Development Bureau (IDB) has identified the following water pollution control technologies and products as currently in particularly high demand from industry:
- Advance Oxidation Technology
- Phosphate Removal Nutrients Technology Ion Exchange Systems
- Litrate Treatment Technology
- Nanofiltration Technology
- Screening Technology for Bio Species
- Integrated Aerobic & Anaerobic Waste Water Treatment Technology
- COD Degradation Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal Technology
- Toxic & Nondegradable Organic Waste Water Treatment and Removal Technology
- Advance Water Treatment & Recovery Technology
- Water Purification Technology
- Waste Water Treatment packages
- Multilayer Separation Membrane Equipment
- Advance Oxidation Treatment Equipment
- Heavy Metal Electrolytic Recovery Equipment
- Fluidized Bed Crystalizers
- Membrane Filtration Equipment
- Solid & Liquid Separation Equipment
- Micropore Membranes
- Ultrafiltration Machines
- Waste Water Package Facilities
- Multi-layer Membrane Separation Equipment for Waste Water Treatment
- Heavy Metal Electrol Dialisis Recovery Equipment
- Membrane Filtration Equipment
- Contact Filters
- Ozone Generation Equipment
- Bio Organism Immobilization Equipment
Taiwan produces much of the lower-technology components of water pollution control equipment. Best prospects for US producers are advanced technology and high value-added equipment and components across the entire sub-sector (refer to H.S. codes listed in the summary.) Other goods and technologies that may be important in the near future are those relating to water recovery technology, water quality improvement and soil and ground contamination. With limited water resources, water recovery technology is becoming essential for the future. Excessive pumping of groundwater, particularly for agricultural purposes, is blamed for lowering groundwater tables and saltwater intrusion. General drought conditions in some parts of the island have resulted in water scarcity for various industries, such as the semi-conductor, steel, petrochemical and textile industries, which use large volumes of water. Technologies that can recover increasing amounts of wastewater and better manage water use in processes, will be a promising area in water treatment equipment.
Water quality improvement has always been one of the major goals of the Bureau of Water Quality Protection Treatment. An action plan that aims for water quality improvement of Taiwan’s five major rivers has been under implementation since 1998. This eight-year project is estimated to cost NT$40.2 billion and to be completed by 2006. To mitigate sewage pollution, twelve sewage systems will be built with subsidies estimated at NT$36.2 billion.
1. Domestic Production
Since 1994, the Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) has selected the “Pollution Control and Treatment Industry” as one of the “Top Ten Emerging Industries.” The IDB targets the annual production value for the Pollution Control and Treatment Industry at $4.2 billion for the year 2003, and an 11% average annual growth rate from 1996-2000. To achieve these goals, the government has offered various types of aids to local manufacturers such as technology development, financial assistance and promotion of key products. IDB’s primary goal is to develop technology-intensive products and decrease Taiwan’s dependence on other countries. Companies can obtain help from various government research organizations, such as the Industrial Technology Research Institute, and research funds are available for private enterprises from IDB. Financial benefits for anti-pollution incentives include long-term, low-interest loans, 20% company-tax credits for expenditures on locally-made environmental protection equipment, 10% for imported equipment, and exemption on import duty. IDB has also established fair-trade regulations and enhanced the protection of intellectual property rights.
There are currently about 300 water pollution control equipment manufacturers in Taiwan. The majority of these companies are small-and medium-sized companies. Domestically produced water control equipment in Taiwan is generally less expensive and less technologically advanced. Domestically produced equipment includes pump, blowers, filters, valves and pH meters. After TEPA tightened effluent discharge standards in 1997, Taiwanese companies needed to upgrade their equipment. With the current stable economy and the recovery of the NT dollar from the 1997 Asian economic crisis, Taiwanese companies may be more willing to collaborate with foreign firms to facilitate technology transfer and large-scale projects.
2. 3rd-Country Imports
International suppliers play an important role in the environmental protection and pollution control equipment market. In 1998, Taiwan imported NT$42,360 million (approximately $1,315 million) worth of water pollution control equipment, a 40% increase from 1997’s NT$30,274 million ($940 million.) The large increase of imports of water pollution control equipment is primarily due to the tightening of environmental regulations and the rising environmental protection awareness in Taiwan. In the water pollution control equipment market, imports are led by Japanese firms, which hold a 33.58% share in 1998, down from 36.96% in 1997. Japanese firms have historically done well in the water pollution control equipment market. They have a strong reputation for good after-sale service, great product quality and low price. Also, similarities in physical environment, such as dense population and space scarcity, create the perception that Japanese products are more compatible in the Taiwan environment than American products. However, US firms are still second in the import market with a 28.27% share. German firms round out the top three with a 13.75% share of the import market. US, Japan and Germany together hold about 75 percent of the market. Other smaller players include firms from United Kingdom, Italy, China, and Korea.
Top Foreign Source of Water Pollution Control Equipment - Market Share (%)
3. U.S. Market Position
U.S. firms hold an advantage in the Taiwan market due to their leading edge technology. U.S. producers are recognized by the majority of Taiwan management decision makers as leaders in the environmental management technology field. However, Japanese products are preferred due to lower prices and better customer service. American firms must fight against the view that U.S. technology is not as suitable for the local environment as Asian-designed equipment. There is also the perception that U.S. technology and equipment suppliers are not as reliable in providing customer service and local support. After convincing Taiwanese end-users of its ability to provide and support equipment, a U.S. firm must still show its ability to supply the equipment at a reasonable price. In the end, price still tends to be the deciding factor when choosing among suppliers that meet bid specifications.
Taiwan’s tariff system is on a C.I.F. (cost, insurance and freight) basis. If customs officials consider an invoice’s transaction price to be too low, they will value the item based on an assumed transaction value. Importers must pay a 0.5% harbor construction fee and a 5% value-added tax. Goods entering by air freight or parcel post are exempt from the harbor fees. There is no import tariff on pollution prevention equipment in Taiwan. Items under the CCC code heading 8479.89.50 (equipment for prevention of air pollution, water contamination, noise treatment or vibration prevention, etc.) and 8479.90.20 (parts thereof) are exempt from duties. Other imports may qualify for exemption as well. In all cases, a Free Tax Certificate must be obtained from the IDB. There are no known non-tariff barriers imposed on US imports of pollution prevention equipment.
Department of Customs Administration, Ministry of Finance
No. 2, Ai Kuo West Road
Directorate General of Customs, Ministry of Finance
No. 13 Ta Cheng Street
Telephone: 8862-2550-5500 ext. 1016 or 2417
Board of Foreign Trade, Ministry of Economic Affairs
No. 1 Hu Kou Street
Telephone: 8862-2397-7210 or 2397-7256
2. Distribution/ Business Practices
An effective way to enter the Taiwan environmental product market is through the establishment of a technical cooperation relationship with a domestic agent. Although some firms are willing to act as distributors, most firms prefer the partnership of an agent relationship. It may be necessary for companies that sell equipment or machinery to find a partner in order to carry out manufacturing or assembly locally.
Imported equipment is marketed through sales agents/importers, direct foreign purchases and consulting engineers. All public organizations purchase imported equipment through open tender bidding, with the exception of China Steel Corporation and China Shipbuilding Corporation. The Central Trust of China (CTC), a quasi-governmental organization, usually procures for state-run enterprises if the purchase exceeds NT$15 million. Agencies notify the CTC equipment to purchase, after which the CTC announces and administers tender procedures. The evaluation of technical requirements is left to the agencies themselves or parties acting on their behalf. CTC tenders may be local or international.
Public air, water and solid waste control and treatment projects are generally contracted through TEPA, EPD and IDB. The IDB’s Section Seven is responsible for pollution control and prevention projects in Taiwan’s industries. The TEPA and the IDB typically contract out responsibility for researching and drawing projects to private sector engineering firms or consultants from Taiwan universities with environmental engineering departments and non-governmental organizations. A strategy successfully used by Japanese players in the past has been to offer technical assistance to key engineering firms to help in their drafting of specifications for major projects.
Taiwan public and private sector purchasers prefer to work with full service suppliers. Taiwan end users seek solutions to environmental problems with one contract. U.S. environmental management consulting firms are encouraged to join with U.S. equipment suppliers when marketing to Taiwan end users.
Importers are usually responsible for arranging their own financing, and financing should therefore be discussed as part of the equipment purchase package. However, official assistance is available in certain cases. The Export-Import Bank of the Republic of China (EXIMBANK/T) will provide loans up to 85% of the total contract value on sophisticated machinery and other high-technology items. In addition, various types of loans are available for imports of raw materials and spare parts for the use of production of sophisticated equipment and the development of advance technologies. Exporters seeking competitive financing terms may contact US commercial banks or their associates which are members of the EXIMBANK/T Fixed Rated Relending Facility Program. This program provides assistance for US exporters by extending trade credit to Taiwan importers.
Private buyers of pollution control equipment in Taiwan source their capital through domestic or foreign commercial banks, or with credits extended by the suppliers. Banks require a 10% deposit when opening a letter of credit, the balance to be paid upon arrival of goods. After developing a solid working relationship, local firms may ask the foreign supplier to accept company payments through an open account, documents against payment, or documents against acceptance. Letters of credits remain the least risky method of financing. Settlement can be made in foreign currency by the importer at the time of maturity, or at the time of receipt of goods or the relevant shipping documents. Most payment processes are through bank-to-bank letters of credit in foreign currency.
TAIWAN BANKS WITH US BANKING ARRANGEMENTS
- Bank of Taiwan
- Chang Hwa Commercial Bank, Ltd.
- Chiao Tung Bank
- Chinatrust Commercial Bank
- Export-Import Bank
- Farmers Bank of China
- First Commercial Bank
- Hua Nan Commercial Bank, Ltd.
- International Commercial Bank of China
- Land Bank of Taiwan
- Shanghai Commercial & Savings Bank, Ltd.
- Taipei Bank
The United States-Asia Environmental Partnership (US-AEP) is a public-private organization which promotes environmental development in Asia. US-AEP is jointly implemented by several U.S. government agencies, under the leadership of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). US-AEP also works with a wide range of partners, including government/non-government organizations, academia, and the private sector. Through various services and activities, US-AEP provides an avenue that links Asia environmental needs to US technology, experience and practice.
US-AEP and Taiwan Authorities
United States-Asia Environmental Partnership
American Institute in Taiwan
Rm. 3207, 32F, International Trade Center
333 Keelung Rd., Section 1
Web: www.ait.org.tw or www.usaep.org
Contact: Mark Lewis, Commercial Officer or Jennifer Huang, Acting Director of USAEP Taiwan
Taiwan Central Government
Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan
41 Chunghwa Rd., Section 1
Administrator: Hsung-Hsiung Tsai
TEPA Bureau of Water Quality Protection
41, Section 1, Chung Hwa Rd.
Director: Gwo-Dong Roam
Industrial Development Bureau, Ministry of Economic Affairs
7th Division (industrial regulation, pollution control, registration of plants and engineers.)
41-3 Hsin Yi Road, Section 3
Section Chief: Chih-Sen Lin, Section Chief
Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI)
Environment and Development Foundation
Bodg.9, 195, Section 4, Chung Hsing Rd.,
Chutung, Hsinchu, Taiwan
President: Ms. Ning Yu, PhD.
Taiwan Water Supply Corporation
No.2-1, Section 2, Shuang-Shih Road
Taichung City, Taiwan
General Manager: Mr. C.H. Lu
Industrial Development Bureau
41-3 Hsinyi Rd., Section 3,
Division Director: Mr. Chih-Sen Lin
CTCI Company, Ltd.
CTCI Tower, 21 F, No. 77, Tun Hwa S. Rd., Sec. 2
Vice President: T.J.Tseng
Kuang Cheng Industrial Engineering Corp.
13 F, No.368, Fuhsin S. Rd., Sec. 1
President: Shin-Chin Lin
Taiwan Power Company
Environmental Protection Department
Pollution Control Division
242 Roosevelt Road, Section 3
Section Chief: Paul Lee
Sinotech Engineering Consultants, Ltd.
Environmental Engineering Department
171, Nanking E. Rd., Sec.5
Vice President: Hong-Chie Ling
Taiwan Machinery Manufacturing Corp.
No.3, Taichi Rd., Hsiaokang
President: I.H. Lin
Super Max Engineering Enterprise Co., Ltd.
14F-13, No.79, Hsin Tai Wu Rd., Sec.1
Chairman: Walter H. Laio
Yusen Engineering Enterprises Corp.
6F-2, No.478, Chung-Cheng 1st Rd.
Telephone: 8867-723-1799, 8862-2723-6079
Fax: 8867-7232-476, 8862-2723-5233
President: Yu Sheng Lo
Taiwan Pollution Control Equipment Manufacturing Association
4F, No. 121, Hsin-Sen S. Rd, Sec 1
Telephone: 8862-2751-2540, 2740-1752
Chairman: T.R. Chian
Taiwan Environmental Engineering Association
9F-5, No. 24, Chi-Lin Rd.
Secretary General: Bill Tsao
Source: Taiwan Environmental Engineering Association Member List 1998-1999, Taiwan Environmental Engineering Association, 1998. Directory of Taiwan, China News Publication, February 1999.
Trade Promotion Opportunities
There are various avenues for promotion of products and services. Local partners are often the best source for advice. Another approach is to increase exposure of the company. Participation in major international trade shows, and advertisement in the relevant trade journals/industry newspapers can establish immense business presence.
Major Trade Exhibitions
ENERGY RESOURCE & ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION SHOW
Fax: 8862-2382-1247, 2382-1252
Contact: David Kao
TAIPEI INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EXHIBITION
Contact: Ms. Pei-Ru Ho
Additional trade show and expositions in Asia:
ENVEX (Seoul, South Korea)
Contact: Thomas Kim
ENVIRONMEX MALAYSIA (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia)
Contact: Environmental Management & Research Association of Malaysia
ENVIRONMENT JAPAN (Osaka, Japan)
Main focuses will be on waste treatment and recycling, global environmental monitoring and measuring and energy conservation and new energy products.
Contact: Sam Driggers
ENVIRONMEX ASIA (Singapore)
Singapore Suntec Centre
Contact: Singapore Exhibition Services Pte Ltd
ETC - Environmental Technology China (Beijing, China)
6th International Exhibition on Environmental Protection, Pollution Control & Green Production Technology
Contact: Adsale Exhibition Services Ltd.
Major Business Publications
Commercial Times (daily newspaper)
Business Services Deparrtment
6F, 49 Chunghwa Rd., Section 1
Contact: Mr. Li-The Leu
Economic Daily News (daily newspaper)
Business Services Department
8F, 557 Chunghsiao E. Rd., Section 4
Contact: Ms. Sophia Ho
Min Sheng Po (daily newspaper)
555 Chunghsiao E. Rd., Sec. 4
Contact: Ms. Ho-Yu Shieh
Business Weekly (monthly magazine)
5F, 62 Tunhua N. Rd.
Contact: Ms. Sandra Chang
Commonwealth (monthly magazine)
4F, 87 Sungkiang Rd.
Contact: Ms. Ellen Yang
Global Views Monthly (monthly magazine)
2F, 1, Lane 93, Sungkiang Rd.
Contact: Mr. Sam Yeh
Source: Directory of Taiwan, China News Publication, February 1999.
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