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U.S. Industry Market Leadership in Asia's Air Pollution Control Sector
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Demand for air pollution control products in the Asian economies where US-AEP is active is similar to the demand seen in the U.S. in the 1960’s. Infrastructure needs are driving demand higher for cement, steel, chemicals, and power. Air quality problems associated with these basic industries are substantial. They are, however, problems that have been satisfactorily addressed in the U.S. Stringent U.S. regulations and the size of the U.S. market make U.S. firms market leaders in air pollution application and product segments. Consequently, U.S. companies have the experience and capacity to capture a significant share of the Asian air quality technology and services market.

U.S. companies are highly successful at developing new products superior to those offered by competitors, and have greater experience in their application. These assets offer greater value to Asian customers, with advantages that are not offset by the geographical disadvantages of U.S. firms. Most air pollution equipment derives value from its unique design, rather than its method of fabrication. Some products, such as high performance dust collector bags, can be produced with automated equipment and delivered to Asia at a lower cost than local production. In an area where local design and fabrication is important, such as the supply of small standardized equipment, U.S. companies are already manufacturing in Asia.

The greatest necessity for air pollution control in Asian countries is coal-fired power generation. Many of these countries have indigenous coal resources, and will be greatly expanding their coal-fired power generation over the next several years. U.S. suppliers have extensive experience to offer Asian customers in the supply of electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters for coal-fired plants, and in the removal of sulfur dioxide (SO2) through flue gas desulfurization. In addition, U.S. firms are rapidly gaining practice in the removal of nitrous oxides (NOX). The demand for all of these technologies will grow as Asian countries develop.

Many Asian economies are moving to the next stage of development creating new pollution and air quality problems. Pollutants from surface coating industries and odors from sewage plants and food manufacturing are prime examples of new pollution problems confronting Asian countries. Two economies, Taiwan and Korea, are already addressing these issues, and in time other Asian countries will also pursue the reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOC). In addition to these stationary sources of pollution, Asian countries are finding that automobiles and mobile equipment are also generating growing amounts of smog and unhealthy urban air.

As a result of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990, U.S. companies have developed solutions to many of the pollution problems created by these stationary and mobile sources. U.S. suppliers of catalysts, thermal oxidizers, carbon adsorbers and absorbers, are market leaders in many specific application and product segments. They are poised to expand into Asian markets, and are already engaged in building manufacturing facilities in Asia to meet the demand.

Demand for traditional particulate and acid gas removal equipment and services is already high in Asia, and will grow in the future. Demand for removal of VOCs and NOx will grow to a substantial size in the future. U.S. companies have the expertise and capacity to compete effectively in the Asian market. US-AEP can provide pivotal assistance to these companies, by identifying new opportunities and bridging the gap between Asian customers seeking air pollution control technologies, and U.S. firms with the technologies and services that can help solve Asian air quality problems.

Chapter Descriptions:

Chapter I: A short executive summary of the contents of the report.

Chapter II: Defining U.S. and non-U.S. companies, and the benefits to the U.S. from sales of pollution control equipment in Asia, regardless of a firm’s ownership.

Chapter III: A basic listing of air pollution control equipment and its uses and applications in different industrial and urban settings.

Chapter IV: A discussion of the factors that enhance U.S. competitiveness in the world’s air pollution control market.

Chapter V: The current and potential demand for air pollution control products in Asian markets, in various sectors, that the U.S. can meet and supply.

Chapter VI: An in depth analysis of the market potential for specific products including precipitators, filters, scrubbers, monitoring and testing, and consulting.

Chapter VII: Discussion of the factors that make U.S. firms competitive in the Asian market, and contribute to U.S. market leadership in air quality products and services.

DEFINITION OF U.S. COMPANIES

As with many industries entering the global marketplace, the air pollution industry has undergone a great deal of acquisitions as well as internal growth. There is, therefore, a great deal of ambiguity in determining “what is and is not a U.S. company?.” In answering this question, it is necessary to look beyond simple classifications of air pollution control equipment and services and look at the underlying components of those systems; there are many unique applications for air pollution control equipment which require individualized solutions, creating strong niches for component manufacturers. The following is a brief description of this report’s methodology for answering this very complex question.

U.S. vs. Non U.S. Companies

The definition of U.S. companies for this report is based on payments being made to U.S. citizens. Those companies with large numbers of U.S. employees are more important than those with few U.S. employees, despite foreign ownership or control.

Several examples will illustrate the complexity of defining a U.S. company. Ownership does not necessarily determine the nationality of a company's operations. In the 1950s, Research Cottrell and Western Precipitation were two of the world’s largest air pollution control companies. In the 1970s, Envirotech and Combustion Engineering joined these two American companies in the top tier. Today none of these four companies exist as a separate entity.

European companies now own the assets of two of these companies. Hamon, with headquarters in Belgium, now owns Research Cottrell. Combustion Engineering is now part of Alstom. Envirotech is now part of a Canadian company, Marsulex. Babcock & Wilcox acquired Western Precipitation assets, which is a McDermott company. For all intents and purposes, this company is U.S. based but it is legally an offshore company.

There is a second tier of air pollution equipment suppliers. They include American firms such as Donaldson, BHA, and Thermo Instruments. Both BHA and Donaldson have manufacturing facilities in Asia. Therefore, sales in Asia by these companies will result in profits flowing back to the U.S. even though most of the manufacturing labor for the products will be in Asia.

The fact that U.S. companies are foreign owned does not necessarily reduce their positive impact on the U.S. economy. When Alstom acquired the assets of Combustion Engineering from ABB, it decided to focus all air pollution control activities for the company in Knoxville, Tennessee. It also decided to retain the large research laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. The result is a greater return for the U.S., since Knoxville is providing engineering and support for worldwide air pollution control activities. Rather than reducing staff, Knoxville has hired a large number of new employees.

Scope of Products and Services

The impact of an air pollution control system sale in Asia can be far reaching. Sales of dust control systems and acid gas removal systems include large quantities of purchased products. Alstom, Durr, Environmental Elements, Wheelabrator, and most large system suppliers are primarily engineering firms who manufacture little of what they furnish. They purchase fans, motors, material handling systems, steel structures, vessels, pumps, valves, piping and instrumentation from suppliers. For every full time employee in the air pollution system company, there are 3-4 full time employees in the component companies working to supply the needs of the system company.

U.S. pumps, fans, nozzles and other items are typically utilized when the systems are designed in the U.S. System suppliers generally do not even furnish the steel or plastic housings of scrubber collectors. Steel fabricators construct these housings and can also supply similar housings for many non-air pollution applications. But several manufacturers, for example PSP, specialize just in air pollution housings. They have an Asian fabrication facility as well as several in the U.S.

Revenue also flows to U.S. suppliers of filter media roll goods. National Nonwovens, Lantor, and others supply roll goods to filter bag manufacturers such as BHA and MFRI. MFRI has automated bag-making facilities in the U.S. and can compete with local sewing operations in Asia for the following reasons: 1) they have better quality control where quality is critical; 2) they can deliver large orders quickly; and 3) their level of automation allows them to compete on price.

On the whole there is a greater impact on U.S. wages from the sale of components than from the sale of the systems. Fortunately, U.S. designed systems typically use U.S. components. To the extent these components can be sold to Asian based suppliers or to European suppliers selling into the US-AEP targeted Asian economies, the market for air pollution control is expanded.

AIR POLLUTION PRODUCTS AND SERVICES PRIMER

Air pollution equipment can be broadly segmented into particulate control from stationary sources, gas treatment from stationary sources, mobile treatment, monitoring and testing, and consulting services. Figure III-1 shows the broad segmentation of the industry. Figures III-2 through III-6 show a more detailed breakdown.

Particulate Control

Particulate control can be divided into electrostatic precipitation, filtration, centrifugal separation, and scrubbing (Figure III-2). Electrostatic precipitators are devices that impart a charge to particles by means of discharge electrodes. The collection plate of opposite polarity then collects the particles. The means of separating the particles from the collection plate provides a further segmentation

Dry electrostatic precipitators utilize rapping to dislodge the dust from the collection plate. Wet electrostatic precipitators wash the dust from the plate. Dry precipitators are utilized where dusts are not sticky. Wet precipitators are used for sticky dusts and for the collection of liquid aerosols. Dry precipitators are widely used for capture of emissions from coal-fired boilers, cement kilns, and many other combustion applications. Wet precipitators are used for acid mist removal from smelters, sewage sludge incinerators and more recently for wood products.

A further segmentation of precipitators is made between high voltage and low voltage precipitators. The previously mentioned applications all require high voltage collectors. Less expensive low voltage collectors are used to capture oil mists in machining operations. The 3-wok rule in Hong Kong has generated a market for low voltage precipitators in restaurants. The 3-wok rule requires the owner of a restaurant with 3 or more woks to install air pollution equipment such as electrostatic precipitators.

A second major segment of particulate control is filtration. Membranes, woven, and non-woven materials are utilized to capture dust while the clean air passes through the fabric. This group is referred to as Fabric Filters or baghouses. Segmentation by cleaning method is popular. Pulse jet filters utilize a back pulse of compressed air to periodically clean the filter tubes or cartridges. Reverse air filters use a larger volume of low-pressure air. Shaker collectors use a shaking mechanism to dislodge the dust cake.

Reverse air and shaker units were previously the choice for coal-fired boilers. Now pulse jet units are increasingly utilized. Pulse jet units have become the cleaning mechanism of choice for many applications.

Fabric filters are used for thousands of applications from grain dust to waste incinerator emissions. In the food industry the units serve to capture product as well as to prevent air pollution. Fabric Filters are the equipment of choice for many of the heavy industries expanding in Asian countries. Fabric filters are used to capture metal dust from steel industry electric arc furnaces, dust from foundry cleaning and sand handling operations, and emissions from mining operations.
Figure III-1 Air Pollution Equipment and Services

Air Pollution Equipment and Services
|
| |
|
|
|
Particulate Removal: Stationary SourcesGas Treatment:
Stationary Sources
Mobile Treatment
Monitoring & TestingConsulting
Figure III-2 Particulate Removal: Stationary Source

Particulate Removal: Stationary Source
| | | |
Electrostatic PrecipitatorFabric FiltersCycloneScrubber
|
| | |
|
| | | | | | |
|
High VoltageLow VoltageShaker
|
Reverse Air
|
Pulse CleanedMulti-TableLarge Diameter
|
|
| |
|
| | | | | | | |
WetDry
Tubular
Cartridge
VenturiImpingement ScruberPlate TowerOther

Centrifugal separation is the principle used in cyclones to separate the dust from the air. Large diameter cyclones are used to remove particles from woodworking operations. However, these collectors are not efficient on small particles. Small diameter cyclones (multi tube cyclones) are more efficient but do not remove sub micron particles. Therefore cyclones are often used for preliminary collection and are followed by a fabric filter or lectrostatic precipitator.

Scrubbing particulate from the air emulates the action of a washing machine. The efficiency of removal is a function of the energy employed. Venturi scrubbers operating at high velocity and high-energy consumption can remove sub micron particles. Spray towers remove only larger particles but require low amounts of energy.

Scrubbers are used to capture explosive dusts, sticky dusts, and liquid aerosols. They are relatively inexpensive and are therefore very practical for many applications in developing countries. Scrubbers often serve both to remove particulate and gases thereby serving a dual purpose.

Gas Treatment

Noxious gases can be removed from air by the following means: absorption, adsorption, condensation, oxidation and reduction (Figure III-3).

Absorbers create a reaction zone in which gas phase contaminants are exposed to a liquid. This liquid is often a slurry (lime) or a base solution (sodium). The gas reacts with the liquid to form compounds in the liquid such as sodium sulfate. Absorbers remove acid gases, odors, and many other gas contaminants.

Absorbers come in many configurations. Packed towers are very common. Upflowing gas contacts the down flowing liquid in a section packed with ceramic or plastic saddles or other structures. Plate towers are another variation. Impingement scrubbers and venturi scrubbers used for dust removal are also often used for absorption.

Adsorption does not rely on a chemical reaction. Instead, gas contaminants are adsorbed in the interstices of media, which has large surface area per unit volume. Activated carbon fills this role nicely because it is relatively inexpensive and is very porous. Zeolites also have these properties. The printing industry uses adsorbers to recover solvents. The semiconductor industry uses adsorbers to capture emissions from wafer cleaning. Cooking odors can be reduced with adsorbers.

Condensation is a way to covert gases to liquids. Cooling is the primary mechanism. Once the contaminant is in liquid droplet form it can be separated. Organic vapors are condensed and reused in production processes. Where solvent loadings are high, condensation has advantages over activated carbon adsorption.
Figure III-3 Gas Treatment

Gas Treatment
|

Absorption


Adsorption


Condensation




Oxidation





Reduction

|


|






|





|

|
|

Activated Charcoal

Zeolites
|

Other


Regenerative Catalytic


Catalytic
|
|


Thermal
|
|


Reg.
Therman


|
|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|


|




|

|
|

Granular

Impregnated Media

Wheels

Powdered

Packed

Place

Honeycomb


|
|

Single Rotating

Two Can

Three Can

|
|

|








|

|

|



|

________
|

________
|

_________
|

______
|

__________
|




Heat Recuperation


No Recuperation



|
|

Packed Tower

Spray Tower

Plate Tower

Jet Venturi

Other







Selective Catalytic

Selective Non-Catalytic

Non
Selective

Oxidation is the conversion of a gas contaminant to an oxide such as conversion of organic gases to carbon dioxide and water vapor. Combustion is the most popular form of oxidation. Thermal incinerators or oxidizers simply combust the gas. The combustion temperature can be greatly reduced if the right catalyst is present. Catalytic oxidizers are therefore considered when the fuel content of the gas is low. Regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTO) involve the capture of the heat of oxidation. This is another approach to minimizing auxiliary fuel costs.

Oxidation is used to combust toxic gases such as dioxins as well as many organic solvent fumes. Can coating, printing, chemical processing, and semiconductor manufacturing are among the industries utilizing this technology.

Reduction

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is similar to catalytic oxidation except that the catalyst in the presence of ammonia or urea causes a reaction of NOx forming N2 and water vapor. The same reaction can be accomplished at very high temperatures without the presence of a catalyst. When ammonia or urea is simply injected into the top of a furnace the process is called Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR). SCR and SNCR are being applied to most large coal-fired generation plants in Western Europe and Japan. A large initiative to install them in the U.S. is underway. Industrial boilers, gas turbines, waste incinerators and nitric acid plants also utilize these technologies.

Mobile Treatment

Automobiles, trucks, and other mobile equipment discharge carbon monoxide, volatile organics, and nitrous oxide. Catalytic reactors, a smaller version of the industrial counterpart, are therefore used to oxidize and reduce emissions (Figure III-4). The mobile sector is a longer term opportunity in Asia and the market is served by a small number of large companies. This is due to the fact that the purchasers are the large automobile manufacturers who buy in large quantity. Because of this, opportunities for the majority of U.S. companies in the mobile sector are less than in other sectors.

Monitoring and Testing

Emissions must be quantified. Equipment to measure emissions discharged from stationary sources differs from that used to measure ambient emissions. The reason is that the pollutant quantities differ greatly. Typically ambient equipment measure parts per billion whereas stack measurement equipment measures parts per million (Figure III-5). Another segmentation relates to the length of testing. Continuous emissions monitors operate 24 hours per day. Intermittent sampling equipment is typically used to perform a 2-3 hour test. Whereas continuous emissions monitors operate automatically, the intermittent equipment requires an operator. This has created a whole industry of testing firms. Many of the samples they collect must then be transferred to a laboratory for analysis.
Figure III-4 Mobile Treatment
Mobile Treatment
|
| |
Catalytic ConvertersCeramic Filters

Figure III-5 Monitoring and Testing

Monitoring & Testing
|
|



Instruments




Systems




Testing




Supplies




|




|




|




|



Particulate
|
|


Gas


Stack


Ambient


Particulate


Gas


Protocol Gases


Testing Supplies

|


|














Mass


Opacity













A continuous emissions measuring system has a number of components including the pollutant sensors (and there could be one for each pollutant), a sample extraction system, a conditioning system, and finally a data acquisition and reporting system. Continuous emissions monitors are typically found on large stacks with substantial potential to pollute. Small operations generally utilize periodic stack sampling.

Consulting Services

Advice and assistance are needed at all levels of air pollution control (Figure III-6). Initial investigation is needed to determine what regulations are applicable and the present level of emissions from the source. Next the best solution must be determined. The successful contractor must then supply engineering and construction services. Some consultants specialize just in permitting and regulatory aspects of air pollution. Others focus on engineered solutions; some provide the full range of services.
Figure III-6 Consulting

Consulting
|



Permitting
|
|




System Specification and Support


Engineering and Design


Strategic Planning


Government Projects



|











Pollutant Determination


Regulatory Determination


Negotiation








FACTORS AFFECTING COMPETITIVENESS

There are a number of factors affecting the competitiveness of U.S. firms in the world air pollution market. In order of importance they are:

Stringency of U.S. Regulations

The history of the air pollution control industry in the U.S. clearly demonstrates that the more stringent U.S. regulations are, the stronger U.S. suppliers will be in the world market. U.S. suppliers were the largest in the world in the 1950s and 1960s. When the U.S. passed regulations requiring SO2 scrubbing on coal-fired boilers in 1970, U.S. suppliers quickly became the world leaders in scrubbing technology. But when most plants escaped the regulatory net because of a grandfather clause, lack of strong regulations undermined the position in the U.S. and world markets. Japanese and European companies with strong local markets quickly gained ascendancy and a dominant position in world markets.

The U.S. is once again on center stage with a huge scrubber retrofit program underway. Even though many of the suppliers are headquartered offshore, the U.S. will again become the center of engineering, technology, and research for SO2 scrubbing.

The trend in electrostatic precipitator market shares clearly shows the same relationship between stringency of regulations and world success. The U.S. firms Research Cottrell and Western Precipitation were the world leaders in the supply of electrostatic precipitators until Europe and Japan instituted tougher standards. By the time U.S. EPA instituted the same standards, only the offshore companies had the experience to supply the equipment. Subsequently, both U.S. leaders became subsidiaries of other companies. Alstom, FLS, and Lab, all European companies, have carved out a major market share, with Alstom now being the U.S. and world market leader.

Research and Development

The second most important factor in determining competitiveness is in research and development. When an engineer at Mikropul developed a method of using compressed air to pulse clean dust collector bags instead of shaking them, he created a whole new industry. Mikropul soon had other U.S. competitors, but it took many years for this technology to be acquired by offshore companies. As a result, even though the original invention took place in the 1950s, U.S. companies still dominate the world pulse jet filter industry.

The development of air pollution instrumentation has taken a similar path. Thermo Environmental, the largest air pollution instrumentation company in the world, has built its empire on the homegrown developments of its researchers and those of acquired companies.

Most of the success has come from private research and development. In contrast the relatively large amount of funding of R&D by the U.S. government has not been as productive. For example, a large amount of government money was spent to develop dry injection technology for SO2 removal. This is a low efficiency alternative to wet and spray dryer technologies and is not likely to have commercial popularity.

Size and Strength of Domestic Companies

Well-run U.S. companies are proving that the transition from domestic to global strength is highly feasible. Donaldson works with small sized dust collectors and, after dominating the U.S. market, has become the world leader in this niche. The company is highly profitable and has set up manufacturing facilities in India to allow better, more efficient access to Asian markets. It has avoided the temptation to compete in the market for big, engineered collectors. The result is that it has dust collector sales of over $140 million year and is more profitable than companies in the large engineered collector segment.

Engelhard has followed the same philosophy in the supply of catalysts. It is not competing in the large coal-fired boiler market, but is the world market leader in catalysts for many industrial applications and in the supply of catalysts to the automotive industry.

Market Leadership

A U.S. company does not have to be big or highly capitalized but it does have to be a market leader. Knowledge is the key to success in many segments of air pollution control. A small company that concentrates on acquiring knowledge and expertise in a narrow area can become the market leader in the U.S, and transfer their leadership to the global marketplace. Knowledge is the most economically exported commodity.

Anderson 2000 became the market leader in the narrow field of scrubbing waste incinerator gases. Even when shipping complete scrubbers from the Southern U.S, they garnered a large share of the South East Asia market. Anderson picked a niche too small to interest Alstom and the other large scrubber suppliers. As a result, Anderson developed expertise for this particular application superior to the larger companies and, by concentrating on South East Asia, combined market knowledge with application knowledge, which yielded profitable results.

Financial Strength

This factor ranks fairly low on the list since most air pollution control equipment is not manufactured in facilities owned by the supplier. Instead smaller steel and plastic fabrication shops accomplish the actual manufacturing. As a result it requires little initial capital investment to start an air pollution control business. Furthermore it is relatively easy to compete in Asia by contracting with an Asian fabricator to build equipment from drawings furnished by the U.S. supplier.

There are some exceptions to this generalization. Small collectors are more economically manufactured in one location rather than job shopped. That is why Donaldson set up an Indian manufacturing facility. Donaldson's high profitability is due in part to the fact that the suppliers of large collectors cannot possibly supply small collectors at the same costs Donaldson achieves in its own manufacturing facilities.

Conventional Factors Affecting Competitiveness

All the conventional factors affecting competitiveness also apply in air pollution control. Product cost is obviously important. Products shipped from the U.S. to Asia are, in general, at a competitive disadvantage. The cost of U.S. labor is also a negative factor. Nevertheless, these two cost factors are not a serious limitation on access to Asian air pollution control markets. Manufacture or assembly in Asia avoids the high cost of shipment of products and high U.S. labor costs. In many cases, the amount of U.S. labor involved in a standard product, designed in the U.S. and built in Asia, is minimal. In the case of a $200,000 scrubber, the U.S. labor may only be reproducing and mailing drawings to an Asian contractor.

But there are also many instances where air pollution control products made in the U.S., and shipped to Asia, are still competitive. For example, MFRI sews glass bags for Asian electric furnace applications in its U.S. plant. Its large, automated operation allows it to quote short delivery times and supply orders that small Asian bagmakers cannot handle. The high cost of U.S. labor is addressed through its investment in automation. Very little labor is involved in MFRI sewing operations.

ASIAN DEMAND

The Asian economies which are covered by this report -Hong Kong SAR, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam-range from developing to developed. Taiwan and South Korea have made great progress. Their higher standard of living has brought with it concern about the environment and the means and the will to reduce air pollution. The mountainous terrain in both economies traps pollutants in the low areas and makes the solution more difficult.

Vietnam, Indonesia, and others in the group are still lacking basic infrastructure. Therefore, the need for steel, cement, and other basic materials is substantial. The region has rebounded from the financial crisis that peaked two years ago. Therefore, economic growth should be healthy in the region over the next few years.

Figure V-1 is a forecast for the year 200l for three of the largest market segments: electrostatic precipitators, flue gas desulfurization, and fabric filters. India is the most populous of the 11 economies. It is addressing its environmental problems and is making some progress. However, its expenditures for flue gas desulfurization are less than those in South Korea. Its fabric filter expenditures this year will only be slightly higher than South Korea.

Figure V-1 Air Pollution Markets 2001

Electrostatic Precipitators FGD (Power Plant) Fabric Filter System
$ Mil
% of world
$Mil
% of world
$Mil
% of world
Hong Kong
5
0.2%
20
0.4%
8
0.2%
India
138
5.1%
150
3.3%
100
3.1%
Indonesia
26
1.0%
75
1.7%
38
1.2%
Malaysia
37
1.4%
25
0.6%
12
0.4%
Phillipines
31
1.1%
90
2.0%
14
0.4%
Singapore
2
0.1%
10
0.2%
5
0.2%
South Korea
63
2.3%
225
5.0%
91
2.8%
Sri Lanka
2
0.1%
--
0.0%
3
0.1%
Taiwan
52
1.9%
150
3.3%
34
1.0%
Thailand
28
1.0%
90
2.0%
25
0.8%
Vietnam
6
0.2%
75
1.7%
5
0.2%
TOTAL
389
14.4%
910
20.2%
335
10.3%
East Asia
1,163
43.0%
--
0.0%
1,041
31.9%
West Asia
160
5.9%
--
0.0%
124
3.8%
Asia
1,324
48.9%
1,350
30.0%
1,165
35.7%
World
2,704
100.0%
4,500
100.0%
3,266
100.0%


These 11 economies will purchase 14.4% of the world supply of precipitators, 20% of the FGD systems and 10% of the fabric filters. Fabric filters and precipitators are needed for reasons other than air pollution control. Without them the parking lots of steel and cement mills would fill with dust. The high percentage of the flue gas desulfurization, though, is due to an environmental commitment. Vietnam has a much higher rate of SO2 reduction than does the United States. It recently installed FGD on its first big coal-fired plant. South Korea placed the world’s largest order for FGD several years ago when it purchased scrubbers for nearly 9,000 MW of coal-fired power plants.

Asia will purchase 49% of the precipitators this year compared to 36% of the fabric filters and 30% of the FGD systems. The reason for the high Asian percentage of precipitators is the commitment to construct large numbers of coal-fired power plants.

Asian Analysis by Equipment Type

Figure V-2 compares the Asian (less China and Japan) and World markets in 200l. Note that when it comes to less essential air pollution control, this Asian sub-segment is a small factor in the world market. In all the categories except precipitators and fabric filters, the Asian sub-segment share is less than 15%. In the case of mobile equipment, it is only 8%. This early emphasis on dust control with subsequent attention to gaseous pollutants has been typical of all the industrialized countries. Even as late as the 1960s most air pollution control equipment sold in the U.S. was to remove visible dust.
Figure IV-2 Asian* Air Pollution Markets 2001




World

Asia*



$Mil

$Mil

% of World

Air Monitoring Instruments

1,229

135.2

11%

Air Monitoring Systems

1,152

126.7

11%

Catalytic Oxidizers

522

41.8

8%

Fabric Filter System

3,266

587.9

18%

FGD (Power Plant)

4,500

630.0

14%

Mobile

3,000

240.0

8%

NOX Reduction

3,700

222.0

6%

Precipitators

2,704

405.6

15%

RTO (Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer)

1,113

100.2

9%

Scrubber/Adsorber

5,424

596.6

11%

Supplies (Monitoring)

430

38.7

9%

Testing

1,634

163.4

10%

Thermal Oxidizer

555

50.0

9%
* Less China and Japan

The Asian sub-segment will spend more on FGD systems ($630 million) this year than on any other pollution control segment. FGD typically utilizes scrubbers but is such a large segment that it is treated separately. Regenerative thermal, thermal, and catalytic oxidizers represent a market of $192 million.

The market for monitoring instruments, systems, testing, and supplies is also large. Combined it is a market of $464 million in the eleven economies. Monitoring and testing is needed prior to equipment installation. Therefore it is not surprising that more will be spent on monitoring and testing in 2001 than on either NOx reduction or mobile treatment (catalytic converters and traps).

MARKETS AND PENETRATION FOR SPECIFIC PRODUCTS

Electrostatic Precipitators

Forecasts that are based on contractor revenues i are smaller than the numbers presented in Figures V-1 and V-2, which are based on system revenues. The difference is that precipitator suppliers do not always obtain contracts for the complete systems. The customer may hire his own contractor to install the systems. India and Sri Lanka are grouped in the West Asia sub segment whereas the other nine economies are included in the East Asia sub segment.

Detailed forecasts for both wet and dry precipitators ii show that power is the largest application, followed by cement. One exception is Indonesia where pulp and paper is the largest market.

India is the largest purchaser among the 11 economies but its $85 million investment this year will pale in comparison to the $417 million which will be spent in China. China is not only the largest precipitator market it is the largest supplier of precipitators in the world. Forty percent of the world’s cement is manufactured in China. China is installing more coal-fired boilers than all of Europe. Therefore, the domestic precipitator market is very large. About 20% of the precipitators (mostly sold with complete plants), are supplied by offshore companies. This is likely to change and China will become a net exporter of precipitators. As a result, the 11 economies in this study will become prime markets for China, thus creating competition for U.S. companies.

Alstom is very successful in Asia and has many precipitators installed in the 11 subject economies. The Knoxville U.S. office is involved in some of this activity. But much of it is also local or from Europe. FLS is another precipitator leader in Asia. Very little of this activity is from Texas. Most is from Europe or is local. Environmental Elements has made some penetration of the pulp mill market in Indonesia with its precipitators. Hamon Research Cottrell is active in Asia. Most of the revenue is attributable to the U.S. company although local licensees and agents are also involved. Korea Cottrell is a very successful Korean-based licensee. It is active throughout the region.

Smaller precipitator suppliers such as Croll Reynolds, Beltran, Belco, and Geo Energy have not made major inroads into the 11-economy market. Assistance is needed by many of the smaller parts suppliers such as Analytec, which furnishes sonic horns to clean the internals of the precipitator. Neundorfer is a supplier of rappers to dislodge the dust.

Fabric Filters

The 11 economies will spend $335 million for fabric filter systems this year. There is a market for bags as well as equipment. MFRI is effectively competing in Asia with shipments from its automated facilities in the U.S. The bag market is only 50% as large as the equipment market but is often more profitable.

U.S. equipment suppliers are modestly successful in Asia. Donaldson is well positioned throughout the region. Wheelabrator has a strong licensee in Japan. Mikropul, which is now part of Beacon, was originally a U.S. company subsequently purchased by the Japanese licensee and now purchased by another American company.

There are a large number of U.S. fabric filter equipment suppliers who are doing little if any business in the 11 subject economies.

Scrubbers and Adsorbers

For the Asian market, the chemical industry is the largest application iv . Absorption is the largest type. The 2001 Asian market for absorbers is $849 million followed by $330 million for adsorbers and $239 million for particulate scrubbers.

There are hundreds of U.S. companies supplying scrubbers and adsorbers. Few have penetrated the 11 subject economies. One exception is Anderson 2000 who has successfully sold incinerator scrubber systems into Malaysia, Indonesia, and other South East Asia economies.

Calgon Carbon is one of the world’s leading suppliers of activated charcoal for air pollution adsorption. However, Chinese suppliers are not only competing effectively in Asia but are undercutting the prices in the U.S. as well.

Flue Gas Desulfurization

Asia will spend $1.35 billion for FGD systems this year. Most new coal-fired boilers constructed in the region will be equipped with FGD, while in the U.S. the primary market is retrofitting older generators. In Asia, the main market is new power generators. Because the individual orders are large, forecasts v are based on average annual purchases rather than for specific years. By 2006 Asia will be raising its annual investment in new systems to $2 billion.

Alstom is a major supplier of FGD systems. Babcock & Wilcox has also been a significant supplier in the region. U.S. companies have done well in Taiwan and Korea in spite of stiff competition from Japan and Europe. The huge retrofit FGD market in the U.S. is going to challenge the U.S. companies to meet the domestic demand. This will decrease their Asian market share in the short run. But longer term, the financial and technical strengths garnered in the U.S. can then be leveraged in Asia.

Spraying Systems, Koch, and other U.S. suppliers of FGD components have significant opportunities in Asia. U.S. components have proven more reliable than those furnished by local Taiwan companies. Some specifications force the use of U.S. or European components by requiring demonstrated performance over many years. This eliminates the less experienced Asian suppliers.

Thermal Treatment

Electronics is one of the larger markets for thermal treatment in Asia. The total RTO market this year will be $313 million. More than 20% will be for incineration of solvent fumes from wafer cleaning operations. The chemical industry will be the next largest purchaser vi . Miscellaneous applications are the biggest segment of the straight thermal treatment market. Surface coating is the largest application for catalytic oxidizers. The 2001 sales in Asia will be $141 million. Surface coating will account for $30 million of that total.

There are many U.S. based suppliers of thermal treatment equipment. Monsanto Envirochem, and Engelhard are already active in the subject countries. Smaller suppliers such as Anguil, Met Pro and CSM have made some inroads. This will be an attractive market because of the substantial market growth in Asia.

NOx Control

Twenty-one percent of the $3.7 billion NOx market will be in Asia this year. This percentage will grow steadily over the next decade and offer major market opportunities for U.S. suppliers. Smaller companies such as Fuel Tech have already availed themselves of US-AEP assistance and have had some success in the market. Their niche is SNCR, which represents only a fraction of the opportunity of SCR, but nevertheless will account for sales of $410 million this year vii .

Since most coal-fired boilers are being installed without SCR, there will be a growing retrofit potential in Asia. This offers opportunities to component suppliers as well as system suppliers. Suppliers of catalysts are primarily non-U.S. companies since Engelhard has not pursued the coal-fired boiler applications. System suppliers include Peerless, Hamon Research Cottrell, Alstom, B &W and Babcock Borsig, all with major facilities for design in the U.S. There are some novel technologies such as Xonon from Catalytica and SCONOX from Goal Line, which hold promise. There are also suppliers of ammonia injection systems and other components who are U.S. based.

Monitoring and Testing

This is a large market served by a multitude of small companies. One exception is Thermo Environmental that has made significant penetration with its instruments into the Asian market. Since testing according to U.S. EPA test methods is required in many of the 11 economies, U.S. instrument suppliers have an advantage. It is expensive to have instruments certified in the U.S. Therefore; unless a company is competing in the U.S. market it would not obtain U.S. certification.

The market for continuous monitoring systems in Asia grew from $204 million in 1996 to a projected $321 million in 2001 viii . The market for testing will be $428 million this year. But this is very labor intensive and is therefore confined to local offices. A number of U.S. consulting firms also done some stack testing but most do not have stack-testing services in Asia.

Entropy, Clean Air Engineering, and MECO do some stack testing through travel from the U.S., but this is mostly for multi national companies who have utilized their services in the U.S.

Consulting

U.S. consulting firms have made some penetration into the 11 economies. Many have offices in Singapore or Sydney and also local offices in other major cities. Much of their work is for governments and multi national companies. Washington Group, Black & Veatch, Sargent and Lundy, ERM, and Bechtel are all established in the area. There are a number of consulting niches that are being served by small companies ix . One example would be an expert on electric furnace fume exhaust. He regularly advises Korean steel companies on this specific application.

There are a number of niche experts in the U.S. who could provide considerable aid to Asian companies. By in large this expertise is not being applied. There are many failures in developing countries due to the lack of niche expertise. General consulting firms by definition do not have niche experts. Thanks to modern communications, niche expertise can, in some cases, be delivered by means other than personal visits, thereby greatly reducing the cost and making participation from the U.S. viable.

Mobile

Johnson Matthey of the U.K. and Engelhard of the U.S. are major players in the world automotive catalyst market. Engelhard has sales in the mobile area of over $500 million. Last year it sold 1,800 catalytic converters to Hong Kong’s largest bus operator. It has started up a new manufacturing plant in India. Johnson Matthey has constructed new plants in India.

Growth in the mobile segment will be substantial. The severe ozone problem in many of the major cities in the 11 economies will be the driving force behind standards that will eventually require catalytic converters.

U.S. COMPETITIVENESS AND MARKET LEADERSHIP

The U.S. is the world’s largest market for air pollution control equipment, technology, and services. Since R &D and product design are the main assets of market leaders, the most competitive companies are those who can spread their R&D and design costs over the largest possible revenue potential. Therefore U.S. companies have a big advantage over suppliers in any other country of the world and they have capitalized on their good fortune. There are now more U.S. companies who are market leaders, in various product and application niches worldwide, than from any other country.

Market leadership and competitiveness are complimentary terms. A market leader achieves the status by being more competitive than others. To maintain market leadership they must maintain this competitiveness. Because R&D and design, rather than manufacturing costs, are the largest factor in competitiveness, a market leader in the U.S. can easily become a leader in Asia. U.S. companies can easily find Asian partners to perform the actual equipment fabrication without fear that it will be creating a future competitor. It is also true that the local fabrication can be cost competitive with an Asian company that owns its own fabrication facilities.

There are more than 1000 U.S. companies who are market leaders in air pollution niches in the U.S. with the potential to be very competitive in Asian economies. Figure VII-1 is an alphabetical listing of more than 100 market leadership positions. Some companies such as Alstom are market leaders in specific industries (power) for a number of products. Other companies such as Smith are market leaders in specific products (thermal oxidizers) for a number of industries.

The market leader ranking indicates that the company is among the top suppliers. A ranking of 3 indicates that the company is one of the top 3 suppliers, defined in terms of revenues averaged over the last 3 years, in the specific niche. It should be emphasized that there are more than 10,000 market leadership positions. So this list of 100 is only representative of the much larger leadership position of a number of U.S. firms. Many companies are market leaders in 10 or more categories.

Market Leadership Positions Explainations

The 1990 Clean Air Act amendments toughened the laws for destruction of hazardous organic compounds and other volatile organic compounds enabling companies offering thermal destruction equipment to prosper.


Catalysts are also employed to enhance thermal destruction.

Adsorption or scrubbing are alternatives to destruction of organics.

Wet precipitators are used to capture liquid aerosols. technology.



Many FGD systems will also be installed in the coming years in the U.S. All the new coal-fired power plants in Asia should be installing FGD.


The U.S. is the world leader in air monitoring instrumentation.

Finally, in the area of environmental consulting, U.S. firms have expertise gained in the U.S. market that makes their services attractive to Asian governmental agencies and to industry. There are few European counterparts to the U.S. consultant, and Japan has little strength in this area. Asians, of necessity, must turn to the U.S. for experienced consultants.
Figure VII-1 Market Leadership Positions of Companies with Major U.S. Operations








Market

Leader

Ranking




Company

SIC

Industry Description

Application

Product

World

Europe

Asia

N.Aca

City

St.

1

ABB Air Preheater

2000

Food Processing

Odors

Thermal




5

Wellsville

NY

2

ABB Air Preheater

2700

Printing

Solvent

Thermal




3

Wellsville

NY

3

ABB Air Preheater

2891

Adhesives

Solvent

Thermal




3

Wellsville

NY

4

ABB Air Preheater

2891

Adhesives

Solvent

Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer




3

Wellsville

NY

5

ABB Air Preheater

4953

Municipal waste

Incineration

Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer




2

Wellsville

NY

6

Alstom

4911

Utility

PC Boiler

Dry Precipitator

1

1

4

1

Knoxville

TN

7

Alstom

All

All

All

Dry Precipitator

1

1


1

Knoxville

TN

8

Alstom

4911

Utility

CFB Boiler

Dry Precipitator

1

1

4

1

Knoxville

TN

9

Alstom

3240

Cement

Klin

Dry Precipitator

2

2

5

2

Knoxville

TN

10

Alstom

4911

Utility

PC Boiler

FGD

1

5

5

1

Knoxville

TN

11

Alstom

4911

Utility

PC Boiler

Selective Catalytic Reduction

3

2


2

Knoxville

TN

12

Amcec

2700

Printing

Solvent

Adsorber

5



2

Lisle

IL

13

Amerex

3312

Steel

Arc Furnace

Pulse Jet




3

Kennesaw

GA

14

Analytec

All

All

All

Sonic Horn




2

Pagosa Springs

CO

15

Anderson 2000

4953

Municipal waste

Combustor

Scrubber

5

5

4

3

Peachtree City

GA

16

Andrews

All

All

All

Needle Felt

2

2


2

Milwaukee

WI

17

Anguil

2700

Printing

Solvent

Catalytic




3

Milwaukee

WI

18

Anguil

4953

Soil Remediation

Combustor

Catalytic




1

Milwaukee

WI

19

Applied Web Systems

2700

Printing

Solvent

Catalytic




3

Elgin

IL

20

Applied Web Systems

2700

Printing

Solvent

Thermal




3

Elgin

IL

21

ATMI

3674

Semiconductor

POU

Scrubber

2



2

San Jose

CA

22

Babcock Borsig

4911

Utility

PC Boiler

Selective Catalytic Reduction

5

3


3

Worcester

MA

23

Beltran

2200

Textile

Tenter Frm

Wet Precipitator

5


5

1

Brooklyn

NY

24

Beltran

3331

Copper Smelter

H2SO4 Mist

Wet Precipitator

5



3

Brooklyn

NY

25

BHA

All

All

All

Sonic Horn

5



2

Kansas City

MO

26

BHA

All

All

All

Bags

1

3

3

1

Kansas City

MO

27

Bigelow-Liptak

2900

Petroleum Refining

VOCs

Thermal




2

Watertown

NY

28

BOC Edwards

3674

Semicondutor

POU

Scrubber

2



2

Wilmington

MA

29

CAE

All

All

All

Stack Test

5



1

Palatine

IL

30

Calgon Carbon

All

All

All

Activated Carbon

2



1

Pittsburgh

PA

31

Calgon Carbon

All

All

All

Solvent Recovery

5

3


3

Pittsburgh

PA

32

Calgon Carbon

4952

Sewerage Systems

Odors

Adsorber

2

2


2

Pittsburgh

PA

33

Ceco

2000

Food Processing

Ammonium Nitrate

Mist Eliminator

2



2

Conshohocken

PA

34

Ceco

All

All

All

Ductwork




1

Conshohocken

PA

35

Chemical Lime

All

All

All

Lime

2

2


2

Montevallo

AL

36

Clarcor

3340

Metal Smelting

Oil Mist

2 Stage Precipitator

2



1

Rockville

IL

37

Clean Gas

1000

Iron Mining

Pellet Plant

Scrubber

5



2

Ronkonkoma

NY

38

Cormetech

4911

Utility

PC Boiler

Selective Catalytic Reduction

5



2

Durham

NC

39

Croll Reynolds

4952

Sewerage Systems

Sewage Sludge

Wet Precipitator




2

Westfield

NJ

40

Croll Reynolds

2800

Chemical

Acid Gas

Scrubber

5



2

Westfield

NJ

41

CSM

2050

Bakeries

VOCs

Catalytic




3

Mountainside

NJ

42

Donaldson

All

All

All

Small Fabric Filter

1

1

1

1

Minneapolis

MN

43

Donaldson

3400

Metalworking

Welding

Small Fabric Filter

1

1

1

1

Minneapolis

MN

44

Donaldson

3400

Metalworking

CNC Mist

Cartridge Filter

1



1

Minneapolis

MN

45

Dravo Lime

All

All

All

Lime

2

2


2

Pittsburgh

PA

46

Duall

3400

Metalworking

Plating

Scrubber

5



2

Owosso

MI

47

Durr

2000

Food Processing

Odors

Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer




3

Owosso

MI

48

Durr

3674

Semiconductor

Solvent

Thermal




3

Wixom

MI

49

Durr

3710

Motor Vehicles

Mobile

Thermal

1

1


1

Wixom

MI

50

Durr

3710

Motor Vehicles

Mobile

Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer

1

1


1

Wixom

MI

51

Effox

4911

Utility

PC Boiler

Selective Catalytic Reduction Damper

3



1

Cincinnati

OH

52

Engelhard

3710

Motor Vehicles

Mobile

Auto Catalysts

2

2

3

1

Edison

NJ

53

Engelhard

2800

Chemical

Organics

Catalysts




2

Edison

NJ

54

Engelhard

2830

Pharmaceuticals

Organics

Catalysts




2

Edison

NJ

55

Environmental Elements

2600

Pulp & Paper

Rec Furnace

Dry Precipitator

3

5

5

1

Baltimore

MD

56

Environmental Elements

4911

Utility

PC Boiler

Dry Precipitator




5

Baltimore

MD

57

Environmental Elements

4911

Utility

PC Boiler

Urea System




2

Baltimore

MD

58

Epcon Ind. Systems

2000

Food Processing

Odors

Thermal




5

The Woodlands

TX

59

Epcon Ind. Systems

2500

Furniture

Organics

Thermal




5

The Woodlands

TX

60

Flex Kleen

3341

Aluminum Smelter

Pot Line

Pulse Jet

5



2

Itasca

IL

61

Foster Wheeler

4911

Utility

PC Boiler

Selective Catalytic Reduction




5

Clinton

NJ

62

Fueltech

4911

Utility

PC Boiler

Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction

1

1

1

1

Batavia

IL

63

Fuller (FLS)

3240

Cement

Klin

Reverse Air Fabric Filter

2

2

2

2

Bethlehem

PA

64

GeoEnergy

2400

Wood Products

Synthetic Wood

Wet Precipitator




2

Kent

WA

65

GeoEnergy

4952

Sewerage Systems

Sewage Sludge

Wet Precipitator




2

Kent

WA

66

GeoEnergy

2400

Forest Products

Sheetboard

Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer




3

Kent

WA

67

Goyen

All

All

All

Pulse Jet Valve

1

2

2

1

Lakewood

NJ

68

Griffin

3270

Concrete

Batch

Pulse Jet Filter




2

Syracuse

NY

69

Hamon Research Cottrell

4911

Utility

PC Boiler

Dry Precipitator


5


3

Somerville

NJ

70

Hamon Research Cottrell

2911

Refineries

Catalytic Cracker

Dry Precipitator

5

5


3

Somerville

NJ

71

Hamon Research Cottrell

4911

Utility

PC Boiler

Urea System




2

Somerville

NJ

72

Howden

All

All

All

Fans

1

1

1

1

Hyde Park

MA

73

ITEQ

4953

Municipal Waste

Hazardous
Waste Incineration

Wet Precipitator


5


2

Houston

TX

74

ITEQ

2800

Chemical

Chemical Processing

Wet Precipitator

1

1


1

Houston

TX

75

Johnson Matthey

3710

Motor Vehicles

Mobile

Auto Catalysts

2

1

3

2

Wayne

PA

76

Johnson Matthey

2800

Chemical

Organic Fumes

Catalysts




2

Wayne

PA

77

Johnson Matthey

2830

Pharmaceuticals

Organic Fumes

Catalysts




2

Wayne

PA

78

Koch

4911

Utility

PC Boiler

Ammonia




1

Louisville

KY

79

Koch

4911

Utility

PC Boiler

Mist Eliminator

2

2


2

Louisville

KY

80

KWH

4953

Municiple Waste

Dioxin

Catalyst

1

1



Yonkers

NY

81

KWH

4911

Utility

PC Boiler

Catalyst

5

1


4

Yonkers

NY

82

Lab

4953

Municipal Waste

Combustor

Wet Precipitator

1

1

1

1

Parsippany

NJ

83

Lantor

All

All

All

Needle Felt

2

2


2

Bellingham

MA

84

Marsulex

4911

Utility

PC Boiler

FGD-ammonia




1

Lebanon

PA

85

Marsulex

2900

Petroleum Refining

Catalytic Cracker

Cyclones




2

Lebanon

PA

86

Megtec

2000

Food Processing

Odors

Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer




3

DePere

WI

87

Megtec

2700

Printing

Solvent

Catalytic




2

Lebanon

PA

88

MFRI

All

All

All

Bags

3



2

Niles

IL

89

Mikropul

2800

Chemical

Pulverizer

Pulse Jet

1

1

1

1

Summit

NJ

90

Monsanto

All

All

All

Wet Scrubber

3

3

5

1

Chesterfield

NJ

91

Monsanto

All

All

All

Biofilter

1

1


1

Chesterfield

NJ

92

Monsanto

2000

Fertilizers

Ammonia Nitrate

Mist Eliminator

2

2


2

Chesterfield

NJ

93

Munters

4911

Utility

PC Boiler

Mist Eliminator

2

2


2

Fort Myers

FL

94

Munters

3674

Semiconductor

Water Clean

Rotary Concentrator




3

Fort Myers

FL

95

Neuendorfer

All

All

All

Rappers

5



2

Willoughby

OH

96

NWL

All

All

All

Transformers

2



1

Bordentown

NJ

97

Peerless

All

Industrial

Gas Turbine

Selective Catalytic Reduction




3

Dallas

TX

98

Pneumafil

2200

Textile

Testile Dus

Rotary




1

Charlotte

NC

99

Process Combustion

2000

Food Processing

Odors

Catalytic




5

Pittsburgh

PA

100

Process Combustion

2800

Chemical

Organics

Thermal




3

Pittsburgh

PA

101

Prototech

2000

Food Processing

Odors

Catalysts




5

Needham

MA

102

Prototech

2800

Chemical

Organics

Catalysts




3

Needham

MA

103

Prototech

2830

Pharmaceuticals

Organics

Catalysts




3

Needham

MA

104

Purafil

4952

Sewerage Systems

Chlorine Leak

Dry Scrubber

3



1

Oconomowac

WI

105

Senior Flex

All

All

All

Expansion Joints

1

1

1

1

New Braunfels

TX

106

Smith

2400

Forest Products

Sheetboard

Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer




3

Ontario

CA

107

Stealth Industries

3300

Metal Industries

Organics

Catalytic




5

Anaheim

CA

108

Stealth Industries

3300

Metal Industries

Organics

Thermal




5

Anaheim

CA

109

Stealth Industries

4953

Municipal Waste

Incineration

Catalytic




3

Anaheim

CA

110

Stealth Industries

4953

Municipal Waste

Incineration

Thermal




3

Anaheim

CA

111

Thermatrix

4953

Municipal Waste

Incineration

Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer




3

San Jose

CA

112

Thermo In

All

All

All

Air Analyzer

1

1

1

11

Franklin

MA

113

Trion

3340

Metal Products

Oil Mist

2 Stage Precipitator

2



2

Sanford

NC

114

US Filter

4952

Sewerage Systems

Odors

Scrubber

1



1

Palm Desert

CA

115

US Filter

4952

Sewerage Systems

Odors

Carbon

3



3

Palm Desert

CA

116

US Filter

2900

Petroleum Refining

H2S

Scrubber

1



1

Palm Desert

CA

117

W. L. Gore

4953

Municipal Waste

Hazardous Waste Incineration

Membrane Bags

1



1

Elkton

MD

118

W. L. Gore

3240

Cement

Klin

Membrane Bags

1

2

2

1

Elkton

MD

119

Wheelabrator

4953

Municipal Waste

Combustor

Dry Precipitator




2

Pittsburgh

PA

120

Wheelabrator

3312

Steel

Arc Furnace

Pulse Jet Filter




3

Pittsburgh

PA

121

Wheelabrator

4953

Municipal Waste

Combustor

Reverse Air Fabric Filter




1

Pittsburgh

PA

APPENDICES
Figure I-7 Precipitators (Wet & Dry) by Location Totals - $ Millions

Country

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

Algeria

$0.60

$0.62

$0.65

$0.67

$0.70

Egypt

$4.73

$4.94

$5.17

$5.43

$5.73

Kenya

$0.36

$0.39

$0.42

$0.45

$0.50

Libya

$0.20

$0.21

$0.21

$0.22

$0.22

Morocco

$6.72

$6.90

$7.09

$7.29

$7.51

Nigeria

$1.07

$1.19

$1.32

$1.48

$1.66

Other Africa

$2.51

$2.53

$2.55

$2.58

$2.60

South Africa

$18.98

$19.24

$19.54

$19.87

$20.26

Tunisia

$0.58

$0.60

$0.62

$0.64

$0.66

TOTAL: Africa

$35.76

$36.61

$37.56

$38.63

$39.84

Belarus

$0.44

$0.45

$0.45

$3.31

$3.32

Kazakhstan

$6.14

$6.18

$6.21

$6.27

$6.31

Other CIS

$2.28

$2.36

$2.46

$2.55

$2.69

Russia

$36.61

$36.76

$36.92

$37.08

$37.24

Ukraine

$10.18

$10.26

$10.35

$10.44

$10.53

Uzbekistan

$0.46

$0.49

$0.52

$0.56

$0.60

TOTAL: CIS

$56.11

$56.49

$56.91

$60.21

$60.69

Australia

$29.59

$29.97

$30.36

$30.75

$31.15

China

$396.88

$407.00

$417.82

$429.45

$441.90

Hong Kong

$2.58

$2.67

$2.78

$2.90

$3.04

Indonesia

$14.23

$14.98

$15.79

$16.68

$17.65

Japan

$110.50

$113.00

$115.54

$118.11

$120.70

Malaysia

$21.90

$22.24

$22.58

$22.93

$23.29

New Zealand

$0.58

$0.59

$0.61

$0.62

$0.64

Other East Asia

$0.41

$0.44

$0.48

$0.52

$0.56

Philippines

$18.39

$18.76

$19.16

$19.60

$20.08

Singapore

$0.62

$0.68

$0.74

$0.81

$0.89

South Korea

$36.68

$37.89

$39.20

$40.64

$42.22

Taiwan

$31.21

$31.74

$32.30

$11.28

$11.65

Thailand

$16.27

$16.71

$17.17

$17.68

$18.22

Vietnam

$3.44

$3.54

$3.66

$3.78

$3.92

TOTAL: East Asia

$683.28

$700.20

$718.18

$715.75

$736.0

Bulgaria

$6.27

$6.36

$6.45

$6.55

$6.65

Czech Republic

$6.22

$6.32

$6.44

$6.58

$6.74

Hungary

$1.86

$6.03

$6.23

$6.46

$6.70

Other Eastern Europe

$7.85

$8.04

$8.23

$8.44

$8.66

Poland

$24.88

$25.29

$25.74

$26.25

$26.81

Romania

$9.44

$9.61

$9.79

$11.19

$11.44

Slovakia

$3.04

$3.09

$3.14

$3.19

$3.25

TOTAL: Eastern Europe

$59.56

$64.74

$66.03

$68.66

$70.25

Iran

$1.88

$1.95

$2.02

$2.09

$2.16

Iraq

$0.37

$0.41

$0.45

$0.51

$0.57

Israel

$9.01

$9.12

$9.24

$9.36

$9.48

Other Middle East

$1.17

$1.30

$1.44

$1.61

$1.81

Saudi Arabia

$1.18

$1.20

$1.22

$1.24

$1.26

Syrian Arab Republic

$0.96

$1.02

$1.09

$1.16

$1.24

United Arab Emirates

$0.36

$0.36

$0.37

$0.37

$0.38

TOTAL: Middle East

$14.93

$15.37

$15.83

$16.34

$16.90

Canada

$53.17

$54.34

$55.55

$56.79

$58.06

Mexico

$12.50

$12.94

$13.43

$13.92

$14.46

United States

$208.83

$250.39

$283.87

$326.27

$329.30

TOTAL: NAFTA

$274.49

$317.66

$352.84

$396.97

$401.90

Argentina

$2.35

$2.49

$2.64

$2.79

$2.96

Brazil

$33.27

$35.75

$38.51

$41.59

$45.03

Chile

$6.11

$6.46

$6.87

$7.28

$7.75

Colombia

$4.31

$4.50

$4.69

$4.93

$5.19

Ecuador

$0.26

$0.27

$0.28

$0.29

$0.30

Guatemala

$0.28

$0.31

$0.33

$0.37

$0.40

Other South & Central America

$2.05

$2.22

$2.42

$2.65

$2.91

Peru

$1.50

$1.63

$1.76

$1.92

$2.09

Venezuela

$2.16

$2.28

$2.41

$2.55

$2.71

TOTAL: South & Central America

$54.70

$58.39

$62.47

$67.00

$72.07

Bangladesh

$0.97

$1.03

$1.10

$1.17

$1.24

India

$80.51

$82.80

$85.34

$88.16

$91.32

Myanmar

$0.47

$0.53

$0.59

$0.67

$0.76

Other West Asia

$0.24

$0.27

$0.30

$0.33

$0.38

Pakistan

$10.36

$10.76

$11.20

$11.71

$12.30

Sri Lanka

$0.54

$0.57

$0.61

$0.65

$0.70

TOTAL: West Asia

$93.10

$95.96

$99.14

$102.70

$106.70

Austira

$2.66

$2.68

$2.71

$2.74

$2.76

Belgium

$3.14

$3.96

$4.03

$4.10

$4.18

Denmark

$1.64

$1.64

$1.63

$1.63

$1.62

Finland

$12.03

$16.60

$16.91

$17.26

$17.59

France

$23.76

$24.29

$24.84

$25.40

$25.98

German

$57.76

$71.65

$72.42

$73.21

$74.02

Greece

$8.47

$8.62

$8.78

$8.93

$9.10

Ireland

$1.40

$1.43

$1.47

$1.50

$1.54

Italy

$23.55

$24.03

$24.55

$25.06

$25.61

Netherlands

$5.43

$5.52

$5.62

$5.72

$5.83

Norway

$0.99

$1.01

$1.03

$1.06

$1.08

Other Western Europe

$0.40

$0.40

$0.41

$0.41

$0.41

Portugal

$2.19

$2.28

$2.37

$2.47

$2.58

Spain

$22.32

$20.45

$20.95

$21.47

$22.01

Sweden

$15.33

$15.76

$16.20

$16.66

$17.13

Switzerland

$1.38

$1.40

$1.43

$1.45

$1.48

Turkey

$22.22

$25.25

$25.97

$26.72

$27.50

United Kingdom

$30.59

$30.87

$31.16

$31.45

$31.75

TOTAL: Western Europe

$235.27

$257.87

$262.49

$267.25

$272.10

ALL COUNTRY TOTAL:

$1,507.18

$1,603.28

$1,671.40

$1,733.52

$1,776.00
Fabric Filter Industry Forecast (by Country/$ Millions)

East Asia



1999

2000

2001

2002

2003


Hong Kong








Bags









Chemical

$0.28

$0.30

$0.32

$0.34

$0.37



Food & Grain

$0.22

$0.24

$0.25

$0.27

$0.30



Foundries

$0.08

$0.08

$0.08

$0.08

$0.09



Metals & Metal Working

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Mining

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Miscellaneous

$0.77

$0.83

$0.89

$0.95

$1.02



Pharmaceutical

$0.15

$0.16

$0.17

$0.19

$0.20



Power

$0.25

$0.26

$0.28

$0.29

$0.31



Pulp & Paper/Wood Products

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Steel

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Stone-Cement

$0.11

$0.11

$0.12

$0.13

$0.13



Waste Incinerators

$0.02

$0.03

$0.04

$0.04

$0.05

Bags

Total:


$1.88

$2.01

$2.15

$2.30

$2.46


Equipment









Chemical

$0.52

$0.56

$0.60

$0.64

$0.69



Food & Grain

$0.36

$0.39

$0.42

$0.46

$0.49



Foundries

$0.14

$0.14

$0.14

$0.15

$0.15



Metals & Metal Working

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Mining

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Miscellaneous

$1.26

$1.35

$1.44

$1.55

$1.66



Pharmaceutical

$0.24

$0.26

$0.28

$0.30

$0.32



Power

$0.34

$0.34

$0.36

$0.38

$0.38



Pulp & Paper/Wood Products

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Steel

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Stone-Cement

$0.16

$0.17

$0.18

$0.19

$0.20



Waste Incinerators

$0.14

$0.17

$0.20

$0.25

$0.30

Equipment

Total:


$3.15

$3.37

$3.63

$3.92

$4.20


Systems









Chemical

$1.15

$1.23

$1.32

$1.41

$1.51



Food & Grain

$0.80

$0.86

$0.93

$1.01

$1.09



Foundries

$0.30

$0.31

$0.32

$0.32

$0.33



Metals & Metal Working

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Mining

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Miscellaneous

$2.77

$2.96

$3.18

$3.41

$3.65



Pharmaceutical

$0.53

$0.57

$0.61

$0.66

$0.71



Power

$0.74

$0.74

$0.79

$0.84

$0.84



Pulp & Paper/Wood Products

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Steel

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Stone-Cement

$0.36

$0.38

$0.40

$0.42

$0.44



Waste Incinerators

$0.30

$0.37

$0.45

$0.55

$0.67

Systems

Total:


$6.93

$7.41

$7.99

$8.62

$9.25


Indonesia








Bags









Chemical

$0.51

$0.55

$0.59

$0.64

$0.69



Food & Grain

$1.03

$1.11

$1.20

$1.29

$1.40



Foundries

$0.38

$0.39

$0.40

$0.41

$0.43



Metals & Metal Working

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Mining

$0.29

$0.30

$0.31

$0.32

$0.34



Miscellaneous

$3.77

$3.88

$4.00

$4.12

$4.24



Pharmaceutical

$0.71

$0.77

$0.83

$0.89

$0.96



Power

$0.25

$0.26

$0.27

$0.29

$0.30



Pulp & Paper/Wood Products

$0.55

$0.61

$0.67

$0.73

$0.81



Steel

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Stone-Cement

$1.63

$1.71

$1.80

$1.89

$1.98



Waste Incinerators

$0.16

$0.19

$0.22

$0.26

$0.31

Bags

Total:


$9.28

$9.77

$10.29

$10.85

$11.45


Equipment









Chemical

$0.95

$1.03

$1.11

$1.20

$1.30



Food & Grain

$1.71

$1.85

$2.00

$2.16

$2.33



Foundries

$0.66

$0.68

$0.70

$0.72

$0.74



Metals & Metal Working

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Mining

$0.48

$0.50

$0.52

$0.53

$0.55



Miscellaneous

$6.13

$6.31

$6.50

$6.70

$6.90



Pharmaceutical

$1.15

$1.24

$1.34

$1.45

$1.57



Power

$0.34

$0.34

$0.36

$0.36

$0.38



Pulp & Paper/Wood Products

$0.90

$0.98

$1.08

$1.19

$1.31



Steel

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Stone-Cement

$2.44

$2.57

$2.69

$2.83

$2.97



Waste Incinerators

$0.71

$0.83

$0.97

$1.13

$1.32

Equipment

Total:


$15.47

$16.32

$17.27

$18.27

$19.35


Systems









Chemical

$2.10

$2.26

$2.44

$2.64

$2.85



Food & Grain

$3.76

$4.06

$4.39

$4.74

$5.12



Foundries

$1.46

$1.50

$1.54

$1.58

$1.63



Metals & Metal Working

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Mining

$1.05

$1.09

$1.13

$1.18

$1.22



Miscellaneous

$13.48

$13.88

$14.30

$14.73

$15.17



Pharmaceutical

$2.53

$2.74

$2.95

$3.19

$3.45



Power

$0.74

$0.74

$0.79

$0.79

$0.79



Pulp & Paper/Wood Products

$1.97

$2.17

$2.38

$2.62

$2.88



Steel

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Stone-Cement

$5.38

$5.65

$5.93

$6.23

$6.54



Waste Incinerators

$1.55

$1.82

$2.13

$2.49

$2.91

Systems

Total:


$34.02

$35.91

$37.99

$40.19

$42.56


Japan








Bags









Chemical

$15.14

$15.79

$16.47

$17.18

$17.92



Food & Grain

$4.27

$4.61

$4.98

$5.38

$5.81



Foundries

$2.06

$2.12

$2.18

$2.24

$2.30



Metals & Metal Working

$7.12

$7.26

$7.41

$7.56

$7.71



Mining

$1.04

$1.05

$1.05

$1.06

$1.06



Miscellaneous

$15.62

$16.04

$16.47

$16.92

$17.37



Pharmaceutical

$5.75

$6.21

$6.70

$7.24

$7.82



Power

$2.53

$2.73

$2.95

$3.19

$3.39



Pulp & Paper/Wood Products

$0.66

$0.68

$0.71

$0.74

$0.77



Steel

$10.68

$10.89

$11.11

$11.33

$11.56



Stone-Cement

$5.37

$5.64

$5.92

$6.21

$6.52



Waste Incinerators

$1.67

$1.79

$1.92

$2.05

$2.20

Bags

Total:


$71.90

$74.81

$77.87

$81.09

$84.43


Equipment









Chemical

$28.39

$29.61

$30.88

$32.21

$33.59



Food & Grain

$7.12

$7.69

$8.30

$8.97

$9.69



Foundries

$3.59

$3.69

$3.79

$3.90

$4.00



Metals & Metal Working

$12.82

$13.07

$13.33

$13.60

$13.87



Mining

$1.72

$1.73

$1.74

$1.75

$1.76



Miscellaneous

$25.38

$26.06

$26.77

$27.49

$28.23



Pharmaceutical

$9.34

$10.08

$10.89

$11.76

$12.70



Power

$4.90

$5.28

$5.71

$6.17

$6.17



Pulp & Paper/Wood Products

$1.07

$1.11

$1.15

$1.20

$1.25



Steel

$16.09

$16.41

$16.74

$17.08

$17.42



Stone-Cement

$8.05

$8.45

$8.88

$9.32

$9.79



Waste Incinerators

$3.64

$3.90

$4.18

$4.47

$4.79

Equipment

Total:


$122.09

$127.09

$132.36

$137.91

$143.25


Systems









Chemical

$62.45

$65.14

$67.94

$70.86

$73.90



Food & Grain

$15.66

$16.92

$18.27

$19.73

$21.31



Foundries

$7.89

$8.11

$8.34

$8.57

$8.81



Metals & Metal Working

$28.19

$28.76

$29.33

$29.92

$30.52



Mining

$3.79

$3.81

$3.83

$3.85

$3.86



Miscellaneous

$55.83

$57.34

$58.89

$60.48

$62.11



Pharmaceutical

$20.54

$22.18

$23.96

$25.88

$27.95



Power

$10.77

$11.62

$12.57

$13.57

$13.57



Pulp & Paper/Wood Products

$2.34

$2.44

$2.54

$2.64

$2.74



Steel

$35.40

$36.11

$36.83

$37.57

$38.32



Stone-Cement

$17.71

$18.60

$19.53

$20.51

$21.53



Waste Incinerators

$8.01

$8.58

$9.19

$9.84

$10.54

Systems

Total:


$268.80

$279.59

$291.19

$303.39

$315.16


Malaysia








Bags









Chemical

$0.50

$0.55

$0.60

$0.66

$0.73



Food & Grain

$0.26

$0.28

$0.30

$0.33

$0.35



Foundries

$0.09

$0.10

$0.10

$0.10

$0.11



Metals & Metal Working

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Mining

$0.03

$0.03

$0.03

$0.04

$0.04



Miscellaneous

$0.94

$0.97

$1.00

$1.03

$1.06



Pharmaceutical

$0.18

$0.19

$0.21

$0.22

$0.24



Power

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Pulp & Paper/Wood Products

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Steel

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Stone-Cement

$0.74

$0.78

$0.81

$0.86

$0.90



Waste Incinerators

$0.05

$0.06

$0.07

$0.08

$0.09

Bags

Total:


$2.79

$2.95

$3.13

$3.31

$3.51


Equipment









Chemical

$0.93

$1.02

$1.13

$1.24

$1.36



Food & Grain

$0.43

$0.47

$0.50

$0.54

$0.59



Foundries

$0.16

$0.17

$0.17

$0.18

$0.18



Metals & Metal Working

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Mining

$0.05

$0.05

$0.06

$0.06

$0.06



Miscellaneous

$1.53

$1.58

$1.63

$1.67

$1.72



Pharmaceutical

$0.29

$0.31

$0.34

$0.36

$0.39



Power

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Pulp & Paper/Wood Products

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Steel

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Stone-Cement

$1.11

$1.16

$1.22

$1.28

$1.35



Waste Incinerators

$0.18

$0.20

$0.23

$0.26

$0.29

Equipment

Total:


$4.68

$4.96

$5.27

$5.60

$5.95


Systems









Chemical

$2.05

$2.25

$2.48

$2.72

$3.00



Food & Grain

$0.95

$1.03

$1.11

$1.20

$1.29



Foundries

$0.36

$0.37

$0.38

$0.39

$0.40


Philippines








Bags









Chemical

$0.40

$0.43

$0.47

$0.50

$0.54



Food & Grain

$0.31

$0.33

$0.36

$0.39

$0.42



Foundries

$0.11

$0.11

$0.12

$0.12

$0.12



Metals & Metal Working

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Mining

$0.17

$0.18

$0.19

$0.20

$0.20



Miscellaneous

$1.11

$1.16

$1.22

$1.28

$1.34



Pharmaceutical

$0.21

$0.22

$0.24

$0.26

$0.28



Power

$0.26

$0.28

$0.30

$0.32

$0.35



Pulp & Paper/Wood Products

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Steel

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Stone-Cement

$0.62

$0.66

$0.70

$0.74

$0.78



Waste Incinerators

$0.06

$0.08

$0.09

$0.12

$0.14

Bags

Total:


$3.25

$3.46

$3.68

$3.92

$4.17


Equipment









Chemical

$0.75

$0.81

$0.87

$0.94

$1.01



Food & Grain

$0.51

$0.55

$0.59

$0.64

$0.69



Foundries

$0.19

$0.20

$0.20

$0.21

$0.22



Metals & Metal Working

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Mining

$0.29

$0.30

$0.31

$0.32

$0.34



Miscellaneous

$1.80

$1.89

$1.98

$2.08

$2.18



Pharmaceutical

$0.34

$0.36

$0.39

$0.42

$0.46



Power

$0.50

$0.53

$0.60

$0.62

$0.62



Pulp & Paper/Wood Products

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Steel

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Stone-Cement

$0.93

$0.98

$1.04

$1.11

$1.17



Waste Incinerators

$0.33

$0.40

$0.49

$0.60

$0.74

Equipment

Total:


$5.65

$6.03

$6.49

$6.95

$7.42


Systems









Chemical

$1.66

$1.78

$1.92

$2.06

$2.22



Food & Grain

$1.12

$1.21

$1.31

$1.41

$1.53



Foundries

$0.43

$0.44

$0.45

$0.46

$0.47



Metals & Metal Working

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Mining

$0.63

$0.66

$0.69

$0.71

$0.74



Miscellaneous

$3.96

$4.15

$4.36

$4.57

$4.80



Pharmaceutical

$0.74

$0.80

$0.86

$0.93

$1.01



Power

$1.11

$1.16

$1.32

$1.37

$1.37



Pulp & Paper/Wood Products

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Steel

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Stone-Cement

$2.04

$2.17

$2.30

$2.43

$2.58



Waste Incinerators

$0.73

$0.89

$1.09

$1.33

$1.62

Systems

Total:


$12.42

$13.27

$14.29

$15.29

$16.33


Singapore








Bags

Chemical

$0.51

$0.57

$0.63

$0.70

$0.78



Food & Grain

$0.08

$0.08

$0.09

$0.10

$0.11



Foundries

$0.03

$0.03

$0.03

$0.03

$0.03



Metals & Metal Working

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Mining

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Miscellaneous

$0.30

$0.32

$0.34

$0.37

$0.39



Pharmaceutical

$0.06

$0.07

$0.07

$0.08

$0.08



Power

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Pulp & Paper/Wood Products

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Steel

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Stone-Cement

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Waste Incinerators

$0.01

$0.02

$0.02

$0.02

$0.03

Bags

Total:


$1.00

$1.09

$1.19

$1.30

$1.42


Equipment









Chemical

$0.96

$1.06

$1.18

$1.31

$1.46



Food & Grain

$0.13

$0.14

$0.15

$0.16

$0.18



Foundries

$0.05

$0.05

$0.06

$0.06

$0.06



Metals & Metal Working

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Mining

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Miscellaneous

$0.49

$0.52

$0.56

$0.60

$0.64



Pharmaceutical

$0.10

$0.11

$0.11

$0.12

$0.13



Power

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Pulp & Paper/Wood Products

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Steel

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Stone-Cement

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Waste Incinerators

$0.07

$0.08

$0.10

$0.11

$0.13

Equipment

Total:


$1.80

$1.97

$2.16

$2.37

$2.60

East Asia









Singapore








Systems









Chemical

$2.11

$2.34

$2.60

$2.89

$3.20



Food & Grain

$0.29

$0.31

$0.33

$0.36

$0.39



Foundries

$0.12

$0.12

$0.12

$0.13

$0.13



Metals & Metal Working

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Mining

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Miscellaneous

$1.08

$1.15

$1.23

$1.32

$1.41



Pharmaceutical

$0.22

$0.23

$0.25

$0.27

$0.29



Power

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Pulp & Paper/Wood Products

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Steel

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Stone-Cement

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Waste Incinerators

$0.15

$0.18

$0.21

$0.25

$0.29

Systems

Total:


$3.96

$4.34

$4.75

$5.21

$5.72


S. Korea








Bags









Chemical

$3.05

$3.30

$3.57

$3.87

$4.19



Food & Grain

$0.76

$0.82

$0.88

$0.95

$1.03



Foundries

$0.47

$0.49

$0.50

$0.51

$0.53



Metals & Metal Working

$3.10

$3.29

$3.48

$3.69

$3.91



Mining

$0.23

$0.22

$0.22

$0.21

$0.21



Miscellaneous

$2.77

$2.91

$3.06

$3.21

$3.37



Pharmaceutical

$0.84

$0.91

$0.98

$1.06

$1.14



Power

$1.48

$1.60

$1.72

$1.86

$1.98



Pulp & Paper/Wood Products

$0.17

$0.18

$0.19

$0.20

$0.22



Steel

$4.66

$4.94

$5.23

$5.55

$5.86



Stone-Cement

$3.67

$3.93

$4.20

$4.50

$4.81



Waste Incinerators

$0.18

$0.22

$0.27

$0.33

$0.40

Bags

Total:








Equipment









Chemical

$5.71

$6.19

$6.70

$7.26

$7.86



Food & Grain

$1.26

$1.36

$1.47

$1.59

$1.72



Foundries

$0.82

$0.85

$0.87

$0.89

$0.92



Metals & Metal Working

$5.58

$5.92

$6.27

$6.65

$7.05



Mining

$0.38

$0.37

$0.36

$0.35

$0.35



Miscellaneous

$4.50

$4.73

$4.97

$5.21

$5.48



Pharmaceutical

$1.36

$1.47

$1.59

$1.72

$1.85



Power

$2.86

$3.10

$3.34

$3.60

$3.60



Pulp & Paper/Wood Products

$0.28

$0.30

$0.31

$0.33

$0.35



Steel

$7.02

$7.44

$7.89

$8.36

$8.86



Stone-Cement

$5.51

$5.89

$6.31

$6.75

$7.22



Waste Incinerators

$0.97

$1.18

$1.45

$1.76

$2.15

Equipment

Total:


$36.26

$38.79

$41.51

$44.47

$47.40


Systems









Chemical

$12.57

$13.61

$14.74

$15.96

$17.29



Food & Grain

$2.78

$3.00

$3.24

$3.50

$3.78



Foundries

$1.81

$1.86

$1.91

$1.97

$2.02



Metals & Metal Working

$12.28

$13.01

$13.80

$14.62

$15.50



Mining

$0.84

$0.82

$0.80

$0.78

$0.76



Miscellaneous

$9.91

$10.41

$10.93

$11.47

$12.05



Pharmaceutical

$3.00

$3.24

$3.49

$3.77

$4.08



Power

$6.28

$6.81

$7.34

$7.92

$7.92



Pulp & Paper/Wood Products

$0.61

$0.65

$0.69

$0.73

$0.77



Steel

$15.44

$16.37

$17.35

$18.39

$19.50



Stone-Cement

$12.12

$12.97

$13.87

$14.85

$15.88



Waste Incinerators

$2.14

$2.61

$3.18

$3.88

$4.73

Systems

Total:


$79.76

$85.34

$91.33

$97.84

$104.27


Taiwan








Bags









Chemical

$2.34

$2.53

$2.73

$2.95

$3.19



Food & Grain

$0.41

$0.45

$0.48

$0.52

$0.56



Foundries

$0.47

$0.49

$0.50

$0.51

$0.53



Metals & Metal Working

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Mining

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Miscellaneous

$1.50

$1.62

$1.75

$1.89

$2.04



Pharmaceutical

$0.66

$0.71

$0.77

$0.83

$0.90



Power

$1.05

$1.13

$1.23

$1.32

$1.41



Pulp & Paper/Wood Products

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Steel

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Stone-Cement

$1.28

$1.33

$1.39

$1.44

$1.50



Waste Incinerators

$0.04

$0.05

$0.06

$0.07

$0.09

Bags

Total:


$7.77

$8.31

$8.91

$9.55

$10.22


Equipment









Chemical

$4.39

$4.74

$5.12

$5.53

$5.98



Food & Grain

$0.69

$0.75

$0.81

$0.87

$0.94



Foundries

$0.82

$0.85

$0.87

$0.89

$0.92



Metals & Metal Working

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Mining

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Miscellaneous

$2.44

$2.64

$2.85

$3.07

$3.32



Pharmaceutical

$1.07

$1.16

$1.25

$1.35

$1.46



Power

$2.04

$2.18

$2.38

$2.57

$2.57



Pulp & Paper/Wood Products

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Steel

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Stone-Cement

$1.92

$2.00

$2.08

$2.16

$2.25



Waste Incinerators

$0.20

$0.24

$0.30

$0.36

$0.44

Equipment

Total:


$13.58

$14.56

$15.65

$16.82

$17.88


Systems









Chemical

$9.67

$10.44

$11.27

$12.18

$13.15



Food & Grain

$1.52

$1.64

$1.77

$1.92

$2.07



Foundries

$1.81

$1.86

$1.91

$1.97

$2.02



Metals & Metal Working

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Mining

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Miscellaneous

$5.37

$5.80

$6.26

$6.76

$7.30



Pharmaceutical

$2.36

$2.55

$2.76

$2.98

$3.21



Power

$4.49

$4.80

$5.23

$5.65

$5.65



Pulp & Paper/Wood Products

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Steel

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Stone-Cement

$4.23

$4.40

$4.57

$4.76

$4.95



Waste Incinerators

$0.44

$0.54

$0.66

$0.80

$0.98

Systems

Total:


$29.88

$32.03

$34.43

$37.00

$39.33


Thailand








Bags









Chemical

$0.31

$0.32

$0.34

$0.36

$0.39



Food & Grain

$0.58

$0.62

$0.67

$0.72

$0.78



Foundries

$0.21

$0.22

$0.22

$0.23

$0.24



Metals & Metal Working

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Mining

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Miscellaneous

$2.10

$2.17

$2.23

$2.30

$2.37



Pharmaceutical

$0.22

$0.24

$0.26

$0.28

$0.30



Power

$0.23

$0.24

$0.25

$0.27

$0.28



Pulp & Paper/Wood Products

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Steel

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Stone-Cement

$2.48

$2.66

$2.84

$3.04

$3.25



Waste Incinerators

$0.12

$0.14

$0.17

$0.19

$0.23

Bags

Total:


$6.25

$6.61

$6.99

$7.40

$7.83


Equipment









Chemical

$0.57

$0.61

$0.64

$0.68

$0.72



Food & Grain

$0.96

$1.04

$1.12

$1.21

$1.30



Foundries

$0.37

$0.38

$0.39

$0.40

$0.41



Metals & Metal Working

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Mining

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Miscellaneous

$3.42

$3.52

$3.63

$3.73

$3.85



Pharmaceutical

$0.36

$0.39

$0.42

$0.45

$0.49



Power

$0.31

$0.31

$0.31

$0.36

$0.36



Pulp & Paper/Wood Products

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Steel

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Stone-Cement

$3.72

$3.98

$4.26

$4.56

$4.88



Waste Incinerators

$0.52

$0.61

$0.71

$0.83

$0.97

Equipment

Total:


$10.23

$10.83

$11.48

$12.23

$12.98


Systems









Chemical

$1.26

$1.33

$1.41

$1.50

$1.59



Food & Grain

$2.11

$2.28

$2.46

$2.66

$2.87



Foundries

$0.81

$0.83

$0.85

$0.87

$0.90



Metals & Metal Working

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Mining

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Miscellaneous

$7.52

$7.74

$7.98

$8.21

$8.46



Pharmaceutical

$0.79

$0.85

$0.92

$0.99

$1.07



Power

$0.69

$0.69

$0.69

$0.79

$0.79



Pulp & Paper/Wood Products

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Steel

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Stone-Cement

$8.19

$8.77

$9.38

$10.04

$10.74



Waste Incinerators

$1.14

$1.34

$1.56

$1.83

$2.14

Systems

Total:


$22.50

$23.82

$25.25

$26.90

$28.56


Vietnam








Bags









Chemical

$0.18

$0.20

$0.22

$0.24

$0.27



Food & Grain

$0.14

$0.15

$0.16

$0.18

$0.19



Foundries

$0.05

$0.05

$0.05

$0.06

$0.06



Metals & Metal Working

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Mining

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Miscellaneous

$0.51

$0.56

$0.62

$0.68

$0.75



Pharmaceutical

$0.09

$0.10

$0.11

$0.11

$0.12



Power

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Pulp & Paper/Wood Products

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Steel

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Stone-Cement

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Waste Incinerators

$0.03

$0.04

$0.04

$0.05

$0.06

Bags

Total:


$1.00

$1.10

$1.21

$1.33

$1.46


Equipment









Chemical

$0.34

$0.37

$0.41

$0.46

$0.50



Food & Grain

$0.23

$0.25

$0.27

$0.29

$0.32



Foundries

$0.09

$0.09

$0.10

$0.10

$0.10



Metals & Metal Working

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Mining

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Miscellaneous

$0.82

$0.91

$1.00

$1.11

$1.23



Pharmaceutical

$0.15

$0.16

$0.17

$0.19

$0.20



Power

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Pulp & Paper/Wood Products

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Steel

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Stone-Cement

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Waste Incinerators

$0.13

$0.15

$0.18

$0.21

$0.25

Equipment

Total:


$1.76

$1.94

$2.14

$2.35

$2.59


Systems









Chemical

$0.74

$0.82

$0.91

$1.00

$1.11



Food & Grain

$0.51

$0.55

$0.60

$0.65

$0.70



Foundries

$0.20

$0.20

$0.21

$0.22

$0.22



Metals & Metal Working

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Mining

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Miscellaneous

$1.81

$2.00

$2.21

$2.44

$2.70



Pharmaceutical

$0.32

$0.35

$0.38

$0.41

$0.44



Power

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Pulp & Paper/Wood Products

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Steel

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Stone-Cement

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00

$0.00



Waste Incinerators

$0.29

$0.34

$0.39

$0.46

$0.54

Systems

Total:


$3.88

$4.27

$4.70

$5.18

$5.71









East Asia

Total:


$1,560.50

$1,670.94

$1,791.38

$1,922.71

$2,057.45
Figure XII-4C 1998 Total Asia Summary ($ Millions)


Industry

Particulate Scrubber

Absorber

Adsorber

Biofilter

Dry Scrubber

Other

Total

Food

4.76

14.29

3.57

4.76

0.00

0.00

27.38

Forest Products

9.27

38.65

0.77

0.77

0.00

0.00

49.47

Chemical

15.37

153.65

32.02

2.56

5.12

10.24

218.96

Metal

76.66

153.31

13.94

3.48

12.20

8.72

268.30

Surface Coating

11.65

11.65

128.10

1.16

0.00

11.65

164.21

Electronics

7.78

58.37

19.45

0.00

5.83

1.93

93.38

Municipal Wastewater

11.92

59.59

9.93

9.93

0.00

1.99

93.36

Waste Combustion

0.00

58.50

1.60

0.00

18.00

0.00

78.10

Other

37.26

58.23

34.93

2.32

11.65

9.32

153.72

Total

174.67

606.25

244.32

24.99

52.80

43.86

1,146.88
Figure XII-4D 1999 Total Asia Summary ($ Millions)


Industry

Particulate Scrubber

Absorber

Adsorber

Biofilter

Dry Scrubber

Other

Total

Food

5.27

15.84

3.96

5.27

0.00

0.00

30.33

Forest Products

10.16

42.34

0.85

0.85

0.00

0.00

54.20

Chemical

17.06

170.64

35.56

2.84

5.69

11.38

243.17

Metal

84.94

169.87

15.44

3.86

13.52

9.66

297.29

Surface Coating

12.88

12.88

141.65

1.29

0.00

12.88

181.58

Electronics

9.73

72.97

24.32

0.00

7.29

2.42

116.72

Municipal Wastewater

13.05

65.23

10.87

10.87

0.00

2.18

102.19

Waste Combustion

0.00

70.20

1.90

0.00

21.60

0.00

93.70

Other

41.20

64.39

38.63

2.57

12.88

10.31

169.98

Total

194.30

684.37

273.17

27.54

60.98

48.82

1,289.18
Figure XII-4E 2000 Total Asia Summary ($ Millions)


Industry

Particulate Scrubber

Absorber

Adsorber

Biofilter

Dry Scrubber

Other

Total

Food

5.84

17.55

4.39

5.84

0.00

0.00

33.61

Forest Products

11.13

46.40

0.93

0.93

0.00

0.00

59.39

Chemical

18.95

189.52

39.49

3.16

6.32

12.64

270.07

Metal

94.13

188.25

17.11

4.27

14.98

10.70

329.46

Surface Coating

14.24

14.24

156.65

1.42

0.00

14.24

200.81

Electronics

11.68

87.56

29.18

0.00

8.75

2.90

140.07

Municipal Wastewater

14.28

71.42

11.90

11.90

0.00

2.38

111.88

Waste Combustion

0.00

70.20

1.90

0.00

21.60

0.00

93.70

Other

45.56

71.21

42.72

2.84

14.24

11.40

187.98

Total

215.83

756.35

304.27

30.36

65.89

54.27

1,426.97
Figure XII-4F 2001 Total Asia Summary ($ Millions)

Industry

Particulate Scrubber

Absorber

Adsorber

Biofilter

Dry Scrubber

Other

Total

Food

6.47

19.44

4.86

6.47

0.00

0.00

37.24

Forest Products

12.20

50.85

1.02

1.02

0.00

0.00

65.09

Chemical

21.05

210.49

43.86

3.51

7.02

14.03

299.96

Metal

104.33

208.64

18.97

4.74

16.60

11.86

365.14

Surface Coating

15.75

15.75

173.26

1.57

0.00

15.75

222.09

Electronics

14.01

105.07

35.01

0.00

10.50

3.48

168.08

Municipal Wastewater

15.64

78.20

13.03

13.03

0.00

2.61

122.51

Waste Combustion

0.00

81.90

2.20

0.00

25.20

0.00

109.30

Other

50.39

78.76

47.25

3.14

15.75

12.61

207.91

Total

239.85

849.11

339.45

33.48

75.07

60.35

1,597.32

Figure X-1

Country
1000 MW
Australia
2
China
30
India
10
Indonesia
5
Japan
12
Pakistan
5
Philippines
6
South Korea
15
Taiwan
10
Thailand
6
Others
5
Total
106
Figure X-2a Asian FGD Systems Orders ($ Millions)


Order

Start Up

Total MW

System Revenue

Carbon Steel

Corrosion/Resistant Materials

Pumps/Valves

Fans/Dampers/
Expansion Joints

Liquid/Solid Systems

Year

Year

(Thousands)



($ Millions)




1997

2000

7.0

1050.00

95.20

122.50

17.71

48.44

12.46

1998

2001

7.0

1050.00

95.20

122.50

17.71

48.44

12.46

1999

2002

8.0

1200.00

108.80

140.00

20.24

55.36

14.24

2000

2003

8.0

1200.00

108.80

140.00

20.24

55.36

14.24

2001

2004

9.0

1350.00

122.40

157.50

22.77

62.28

16.02

2002

2005

9.0

1350.00

122.40

157.50

22.77

62.28

16.02

2003

2006

10.0

1500.00

136.00

175.00

25.30

69.20

17.80

2004

2007

10.0

1500.00

136.00

175.00

25.30

69.20

17.80

2005

2008

11.0

1650.00

149.60

192.50

27.83

76.12

19.58

2006

2009

13.0

1950.00

176.80

227.50

32.89

89.96

23.14
Figure A-2B Asian System Revenue


Figure X-3 Asian Utility FGD Renovations

Year
20-year Old Units
Net Units Renovated*
Renovation Expense
(MW thousands)
($ Millions)
19965.004.00240.00
19975.004.00240.00
19982.001.6096.00
19990.000.000.00
20000.000.000.00
20011.000.8048.00
20021.000.8048.00
20032.001.6096.00
20042.001.6096.00
20052.001.6096.00
20060.000.000.00
* 80% renovated; 20% retired
Figure X-4 Asian System Supplier Orders ($ Millions)

YearNew SystemsRenovationsTotal
199710502401290
19981050961146
1999120001200
2000120001200
20011350481398
20021350481398
20031500961596
20041500961596
20051650961746
2006195001950

Figure X-5a Asian Annual Retrofit FGD Costs ($ Millions)

Year

New

Total

Utility Costs

Carbon Steel

Corrosion Resistant

Pumps/Valves

Fans/Dampers/
Expansion Joints

Liquid/Solid Separation



(MW thousands)



($ Millions)




1997

4.0

48.0

2016.00

25.92

43.20

21.60

49.44

12.96

1998

12.0

60.0

2520.00

32.40

54.00

27.00

61.80

16.20

1999

8.0

68.0

2856.00

36.72

61.20

30.60

70.04

18.36

2000

7.0

75.0

3150.00

40.50

67.50

33.75

77.25

20.25

2001

7.0

82.0

3444.00

44.28

73.80

36.90

84.46

22.14

2002

8.0

90.0

3780.00

48.60

81.00

40.50

92.70

24.30

2003

8.0

98.0

4116.00

52.92

88.20

44.10

100.94

26.46

2004

9.0

107.0

4494.00

57.78

96.30

48.15

110.21

28.89

2005

9.0

116.0

4872.00

62.64

104.40

52.20

119.48

31.32

2006

10.0

126.0

5292.00

68.04

113.40

56.70

129.78

34.02

Figure IX-9 Summary of Catalytic Oxiders - East Asia ($ Millions)

Year

Transportation

Surface Coating

Food

Forest Products

Chemicals

Electronics

Municipal

Other Industries

Total

1995

2.06

13.99

5.56

0.48

10.98

5.88

14.53

11.99

65.47

1996

2.27

15.53

6.18

0.53

12.21

7.06

15.98

13.31

73.06