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Market Research

Environmental Remediation in Japan

The industrial pollution, which Japan experienced during the high growth economy of the 60's and 70's, prompted the Japanese government and factory owners to equip themselves with necessary laws and pollution control equipment.

While this end-of-pipe pollution has been well under control in most situations, and the nation is now one of the world's three largest exporters of pollution control equipment and technology. A new type of pollution has gradually become known since the late 1980s. This is soil and groundwater contamination by toxic substances such as chemicals, organic chlorine compounds and heavy metals used in manufacturing processes, especially in high-tech industries.

Because of a growing concern among the public over the health hazard caused by environmental contamination of this nature, (along with continuing regulatory tightening,) the Japanese market for contaminated soil and groundwater remediation will expand for decades to come. The market potential is estimated to be from 12 billion to 15 billion. U.S. firms, because of their proven engineering methods and remediation technologies should find themselves in a highly competitive position in this emerging market in Japan.

This paper addresses the remediation business for soil and groundwater contamination, the largest sector of the Japanese environmental remediation market.

Market Highlights & Best Prospects

1. Legislative Overview/Transition

The problems of soil and groundwater contamination in Japan were first identified as originating from mining industry operations, affecting farmland with deposits of copper, cadmium and arsenic. The Japanese Government in 1971 enacted the "Agricultural and Soil Pollution Prevention Law". However, this law was applicable only for the contamination by these three substances in farmland. While mining operations and resulting pollution of farmlands decreased sharply by the late 1970s, the "high-tech contamination" caused by rapid industrial growth and expansion of production capacity posed an increased threat to rural and urban environments.

In Japan, the problem of high-tech contamination in soil and groundwater was first reported as the result of surveys done by the Environment Agency (EA) in 25 major cities in the early 1980s. EA's subsequent investigations revealed that the groundwater contamination had spread into 3,900 areas in nearly 600 municipalities. Roughly 60% of these areas were polluted by organic chloride solvents such as TCE (tetrachloroethylene) and PCE (trichloroethylene), albeit within acceptable levels in many cases. However, these soil based toxins intrude very slowly into groundwater, some experts are skeptical of these test results. The other contaminants were heavy metals (e.g.: hexevalent chromium, led, arsenic and mercury), nitrate nitrogen, and other toxic chemical compounds.

No legislative actions existed to cope with this threat of emerging pollution until 1989, when Japan's Water Pollution Control Law was revised to forbid the release of industrial wastewater containing hazardous substances that can infiltrate groundwater. This amendment also passed responsibility to prefectural governors for surveillance over the quality of groundwater in their regions.

In 1991 EA established Japan's first environmental quality standards (EQS) relating to soil contamination by ten substances: alkylmercury, total mercury, hexavalent chromium, copper, cadmium, arsenic, lead, PCB, organic phosphorous and cyanide. In April 1994, the number of legally controlled soil contaminants was increased to the current 25, including TCE and PCE. In 1996, the Water Pollution Control Law was revised so that prefectural governors or mayors of twelve major cities could mandate that business entities conduct remediation of contaminated groundwater. In response to this change, in March 1997, Japan's first environmental control standards were established for 23 toxic substances designated as groundwater contaminants.

Despite all the legislative measures mentioned above, reliable sources point out that cases of soil and groundwater contamination in rural areas have been increasing. Inadequate waste management and illegal dumping of waste have caused the most contamination cases. One major factor accelerating this situation was that related national laws and regulations have lacked strong penalties. In this context, in 1997 the Waste Disposal Law was amended, increasing the maximum penalty from one million-yen to 100 million-yen. However, the penalty applies only to acts of illegal waste dumping.

2. Major Issues/Cases

Over the past several years, a number of specific soil and groundwater contamination sites have become publicly known. The number of cases in which entities voluntarily disclosed their contamination has been increasing little by little. Cited below are some cases that will help readers understand the extent of contamination occurring in Japan.

In 1997, soil and groundwater contamination of organic chloride solvents near the factory of a major Japanese electric and electronic equipment manufacturer in Osaka area was disclosed by an internal source. The level of contamination was 800 times higher than the permissible limit. Reportedly, the volume of TCE used at this factory (until 1983) exceeded 102,000 litters. TCE was used for component cleaning.

In January 1989, an environmental journal revealed contamination of spring water with TCE and PCE in a city with a population of 170,000. The level of contamination was about twice as high as the safety standards set under the national tap water quality control law. Since nearly 70% of the population used the spring for drinking water, the city conducted an immediate investigation on firms suspected as potential pollutants. The city then put in "simplified purification units" at a cost of 100,000 yen per unit. The purification equipment, which consisted of a drum barrel containing carbonated charcoal and a pump, was rented to small-sized business entities that were not able to afford their own clean up work.

The city enacted in 1994 a new ordinance mandating that polluting entities restore soil and groundwater quality when contaminated. This is the first mandatory ordinance of its kind in Japan. The geological investigation of the city, which took place for a period of four years, concluded that 45 firms out of 131 investigated were responsible for the contamination of the city's water resources. Currently, all but nine firms have completed clean up projects. The total cost incurred for the remediation exceeded 700 million yen, or about US $6 million, including the costs for geological surveys. It is considered that the responsiveness of the municipal office contributed to minimize the clean up costs.

Triggered by the incident in the above city, other municipalities where inhabitants depend largely on wells for drinking water started their own investigations. Therefore, one IC manufacturer with a major factory outside of Tokyo had to pay a large fine as compensation to the community, this was in addition to the costs required for remediation of wells that the company polluted.

In May 1998, a large European chemical manufacturer reported soil contamination at their factory. The contamination was discovered as the result of the firm's own investigation which was initiated after the closure of the plant in 1992. The company announced a plan to clean up the factory site by the year 2001. Estimated cost required for the restoration was 7 billion-yen, or approximately $53.5 million (exchange rate: 131yen/dollar). In addition, at a dye factory site in Hiroshima Prefecture, a pile of heavy waste metals (such as lead, mercury and arsenic) and PCBs accumulated over a period of 70 years was found. The management of these hazardous substances was not adequate. Due to the strong demand from the neighboring community, the city office requested that the firm submit a concrete plan for the proper disposition of these toxic materials, as well as an investigation of environmental contamination at the factory.

Since PCBs were banned in 1974, all waste PCBs and anything containing PCBs have been stored under the responsibility of the discharging entity. However, environmental contamination with PCBs tends to be more rampant than the public perceives. For example, a mid-sized city in western Japan recently disclosed that out of some 700 facilities where PCBs and PCB impregnated equipment were stored, roughly 60% of these PCB's were missing.

This disclosure is the first of its kind, as the city pushes highly-environmentally oriented policy because of their bitter experience with the other pollution issues in the past. Given that a large quantity of PCB impregnated electric equipment (e.g. 560,000 units of transducers and capacitors) has been stored nationwide; the threat to soil and groundwater by these highly toxic chemical compounds is considered to be high.

Dioxin poisoning is the most recent and probably the most serious environmental issue in Japan. Just a few months ago, a Ministry of Labor (MOL) research group conducted health checks on workers at municipal waste incineration plants in Osaka. The result showed an abnormally high level of dioxin (30 - 40 times higher than Japanese public) was detected in the blood of workers at the incineration plants. Based on the test results, several workers filed for workers compensation with the Labor Works and Inspection Office of Osaka Prefecture. This is the first time applications were filed in Japan citing dioxin as the major cause. Investigations found that dioxin was leaked from cooling water or equipment that compresses incineration ash from dust collectors, not to mention the smokestack emissions from incinerators.

The municipally operated about 1,900 garbage incineration plants, believed to be the source of approximately 80% of the total volume of dioxin (4,300 grams estimated in 1997) being discharged in Japan. Studies show a relatively high level of dioxin detected in soil near and around some of the plants sampled for investigation. Currently, there does not yet exist a law restricting dioxin emissions except for guidelines prescribed recently by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and EA stipulating safety standards different to each other's. The Government of Japan (GOJ) is urgently in the process of consolidating these guidelines into a new law. Nevertheless, it is suspected that soil and groundwater contamination with dioxin may already be widespread. One definite solution, which the GOJ must take urgently, is the adoption of stringent safety standards at least as strong as those instituted by WHO.

3. Market Prospects

As indicated above, from a historical point of view, unlike the U.S.A., the market in Japan for contaminated soil and groundwater remediation is a new sector in the Japanese environmental market. The market, which is typically regulatory-driven, will expand on a constant base for the coming decades due to the factors described below.

1) Based on the gradually strengthened laws and regulations of the Central Government, in recent years, a considerable number of local governments began monitoring or instituting new ordinances, which can be highly stringent or mandatory to minimize the threat of this newly risen environmental contamination issue. This trend is prominent particularly among municipalities where citizens dependent on groundwater as a source of drinking water is proportionally high. The number of local governments having introduced mandatory ordinances to this effect has sharply increased from no more than ten a few years ago to about thirty today. Some of these local governments mandate that owners of public land or factories confirm whether their land is contaminated when transferring ownership. They also mandate pollutant remediation when contamination is detected.

2) Japan singles out the number of companies that have successfully registered with the International Standard Organization (ISO) with respect to compliance with ISO "14000 Series" on environmental management and auditing. The ISO "14000 Series" was adopted into the Japan Industrial Standard (JIS) in 1996. The number of domestic business establishments, which have been certified under ISO 1400 Series, is expected to exceed 2,000 in the very near future. Consequently, a growing number of Japanese firms have started closer monitoring, environmental assessment, and voluntarily remediation of the environment that they contaminated.

3) With environmental issues now under increasing public scrutiny, product "Life Cycle Assessment", "Eco-Factory", "Green Procurement, and "Zero Emission" are new environmental concepts that the nation is trying to promote in its endeavor to attain "sustainable development". Towards this end, the Japanese Government continues to realign related environmental laws and regulations.

4) The Japanese Government finally decided to introduce the system of PRTR (Pollutants Release and Transfer Register), or the U.S. version of TRI (Toxic Release Inventory). Also, Japan's first "Public Information Disclosure Act" is expected to be approved by the Diet before May, 1999. These legislative actions, a wish of environmental NGOs in Japan, will tribute to further increase of the "voluntary remediaton" described above.

4. Market Size

Factory owners tend to keep pollution-related problems secret, until such problems are disclosed by a third party group or by an accident that occurs in their community.

Due to these reasons, there is little publicly available information that leads to an accurate understanding on the extent and content of environmental contamination, nor the size of the market in Japan. As studies and investigations by environmental groups and scholars progress, it has become a commonly accepted notion that there are at least 15,000 sites where soil and groundwater are contaminated. Immediate remediation in one form or another will be required. Based on this, the potential size of the market of this sector in Japan is estimated in the range of $12 billion to $15 billion.

It should be noted that this figure does not include small-scale contamination caused by smaller factories or laundry shops. If these facilities are counted, the number of contaminated sites will increase to some several hundred thousands.

5. Best Sales Prospects

Most equipment or machinery needed to carry out the clean up work is now locally available; therefore, it is remediation engineering technologies and software that Japan is in need of. Japan should be highly receptive to U.S. EPA-registered remediation technologies and expertise if they are cost-effective and fit into the socio-geological environment, including the soil and hydrogeoloical characteristics that are often different from the U.S. Given the types of harmful substances currently regulated by the Japanese law, the following remediation methods and products will have good sales potential in Japan:
Note: Sources indicated that EA is in the process of instituting safety guidelines for groundwater bioremediation hopefully by the end 1999. The guideline would lead to enhanced application of microbial treatment in Japan.

Competitive Analysis

Since the early 1990s, the large size of the Japanese market for contaminated soil and groundwater remediation has resulted in an increasing number of Japanese firms looking for business opportunities. The remediation methods conventionally employed domestically had been limited mostly to actual removal or encapsulation (using concrete) of contaminated soil. Obviously, the conventional methods were inadequate. Because encapsulation by concrete limits future land utilization, and the removal method requires additional space for treatment/disposing of the excavated soil. In addition, since the affected soil must be transported, the potential danger of secondary contamination always exists. More importantly, these methods were ineffective to deal with "high-tech contamination" as pollution by organic chlorine solvents permeates deeply underground.

Because of lack of expertise and effective remediation methods in Japan, many Japanese companies visited the US and Europe to study how soil/groundwater remediation was actually carried out. In fact, companies well known in such fields as building construction, civil engineering, wastewater treatment system manufacturing, plant engineering and construction, heavy industry equipment manufacturing and geological survey have entered this sector of the environmental market. These moves among the Japanese firms became conspicuous particularly over the past four or five years.

For example, in December 1992, the Japan Forum for Soil Environment Remedition (JFSER) was established with an aim to develop and promote technical countermeasures, as well as to study practical cases of soil and groundwater contamination in the U.S.A. and Europe. The JFSER was expanded into the Geo-Environmental Protection Center (GEPC) in April 1996. The GEPC, which is the first corporate organization of its kind in Japan and initially started with about 60 companies, now has 92 firms as members. Among them include two joint ventures (Europe, and US respectively). The Center's activities were also expanded and now offer "counseling and guidance" to local governments and enterprises with contamination problems. In this context, the Center introduces its member firms collectively for potential customers upon request.

Japanese companies that have introduced specific engineering methods or equipment for remediation of contaminated soil/groundwater include:

Kokusai Kogyo, a major geographic survey company, developed in 1996 a new boring method that is believed to reduce one third of the time and the cost which conventional methods require. It is noteworthy that their boring method uses excavation machinery imported from the U.S.

Canon, a major Japanese manufacturer of cameras and photocopy machines announced in August 1996 that they developed a microorganism to decompose TCE, PCE and other VOC's by a process of gene variation. The decomposition capability of these microbes is 25 times that of conventional organisms available in Japan.

Hazama, a large general construction company introduced in July 1998 a soil clean-up method that is believed to be several times as efficient as conventional techniques. The method uses carbonic acid, which is pumped into groundwater. The carbonic acid, because of its infiltration power, acts in such a way to elute the organic solvents absorbed in the soil. The level of carbon acid used in this method is one fortieth of the carbon acid contained in soft drinks, thus utterly harmless to human and animals.

In July 1998, Yokohama National University developed a photo catalyst, which has a chemical reaction when hit by ultraviolet rays and detoxifies TCE and PCE. Asahi Denka Kogyo, a fairly large manufacturer of fine chemical products and foodstuffs, succeeded in incorporating this technology into small equipment capable to treat 100 tons of contaminated water a day. The cost for this equipment is expected to be five million-yen. Asahi Denko is planing to develop larger equipment with daily treatment capacity of 1,000 - 1,500 tons.

Kankyo Engineering Co., Ltd., part of the Japan Steel group, announced in the summer of 1998 its intention to enter the soil/groundwater remediation business. Their remediation method, which was developed jointly with a manufacturer of wastewater treatment agents, is said to be able to deal with high-concentrated contamination of organic chlorine solvents at the 1000-PPM level. The basic principle of their technology is to use the heat created by lime reacted in water for solvent recovery.

From a technological point of view, many believe that U.S. firms still maintain a strong competitive edge against Japanese competitors. This is primarily because the U.S. market in this sector has been established due to the 1980 enactment of the "Superfund", resulting in U.S. companies having highly cost-efficient and diversified remediation technology.

U.S. environmental remediation firms having a subsidiary or a joint venture in Japan are limited to such firms as: Dames & Moore (Los Angels, CA); Environmental Resources Management (Exton, PA) and Pennoni International, (Philadelphia, PA). CH2M HILL closed its Japan office in December 1998 and now uses a Japanese firm as its agent. (The primary reasons for the limited cases of direct market entry are given in Section D on market access.) Market entry by firms from third countries is currently not significant, limited only to Europe.

End-User Analysis

The primary end-users of remediation of soil/groundwater contamination include sizable establishments manufacturing or using toxic chemicals, chemical compounds and heavy metals, as well as waste disposal and incineration facilities. Particularly the primary targets include manufacturers of chemicals, electric/electronic equipment and precision equipment; facilities engaging in metal plating; oil refineries, and research and testing. In addition, large general construction companies are good prospects, and as potential partners.

Based on the "Japan Statistical Year Book 1998" published by the Statistical Bureau of the Management and Coordination Agency, the total number of manufacturing establishments in Japan (as of 1993) is 856,896, of which those with more than 300 employees are 4,601. The breakdown by industry is Chemical Industry - 9,728 (361); Iron and Steel 9,691 - (148); General Machinery - 87,063 (484); Electric Machinery, Equipment & Supplies - 55,317 (1,159); Precision Instruments & Machinery - 15,379 (156); Transportation Equipment - 29,899 (558); Petroleum and Coal Products - 1,417 (43). The numbers in parentheses refer to facilities with more than 300 employees.

The number of establishments in the construction business (both public and private construction) having more than 300 employees is 389. As of 1997, there are 2,361 municipal waste landfill facilities and 1,880 incineration plants, which are owned and operated by municipalities, as well as about 3,100 privately owned industrial waste disposal facilities in Japan.
Market Access

The currently controlled substances and the environmental quality standards (EQS) set for each contaminant for prevention of contamination in groundwater and soil in Japan are in Table 1 and Table 2, respectively:
Table 1 - Groundwater Contamination

Legally Controlled Substances
Permissible Limits
Not detectable
Hexavalent Chromium
Not detectable
Not detectable
Carbon Tetrachloride
Cis-1,2 Dichloroethylene
1,3-Dichloropropene (D-D)
Thiobencarb (Benthiocarb)
Selenium and its compounds
Table 2 - Soil Contamination
Legally Control Substances
Permissible Limits
Not detectable
Organic Phosphor
Not detectable
Hexavalent Chromium
Not detectable
Not detectable
Carbon Tetrachloride
Cis-1,2 Dichloroethylene
1,3-Dichloropropene (D-D)
Thiobencarb (Benthiocarb)
Selenium and its compounds
Note: The permissible levels listed in the tables above are per one liquid liter sample (except for copper, which is per 1kg of soil of farmland only). The liquids must be sampled specifically according to the offices of Environment Agency listed in the Section F. The measurement methods must be based on the Japan Industrial Standards (JIS).

The most common form of market entry by U.S. companies is: (1) wholly-owned subsidiary, (2) jointly invest with a Japanese partner in a subsidiary, (3) appoints a sales agent or distributor, or (4) license technology to a Japanese company. In view of the high investment costs required for setting up a subsidiary in Japan, the potential risks associated with developing a business, as well as the domestic demand focusing on clean-up technology rather than equipment, the market opportunities in Japan for non-domestic soil/groundwater remediation firms has been limited to technology licensing or component sales.

A company seeking to engage successfully in comprehensive remediation services in Japan on a long-term basis should consider a subsidiary or joint venture, while a company only seeking to sell equipment might prefer to find a distributor that has an existing sales network. A licensing agreement may be most appealing as it avoids start-up costs. One potential pitfall of licensing arrangements is the sharing of technology, which may result in a long-term exclusion of the U.S. company from the Japanese market and creation of a potential Japanese competitor. To minimize this potential risk, a carefully constructed and executed agreement coupled with a dedicated R&D effort is essential.

Sales channels for environmental remediation services are basically the same as in the United States. However, distribution of equipment and systems for remedial work is either by direct sale (for imports, through the subsidiary, joint venture, or agent/distributor), or indirectly through a dealer or a combination of both depending on the situation. High-priced products are normally sold direct.

Typically, Japanese companies pay by promissory note that is payable 90, 120, or 150 days from issue. The rate of discount can vary depending on the length of association and importance of the relationship the supplier has with the customer.

The Japanese Government subsidizes the purchase of pollution control equipment, domestically produced or imported, by granting special tax deductions and/or low interest loans. Special depreciation incentives are granted on national taxes. The tax on fixed environmental assets is not accessed or deductible. The Small Business Finance Corporation (SBFC) and the Japan Environment Corporation (JEC) are the major governmental organizations providing low cost loans for funding the purchase of equipment or to construct facilities for pollution abatement and recycling. For further information, contact:

Japan Environmental Corporation (JEC)
1-4-1, Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100
Phone: (03) 5251-1013 Fax: (03) 3592-5056
Contact: Mr. Tadaaki Kitagawa, Director, General Affairs Division

Small Business Finance Corporation
1-9-3 Ohtemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100
Phone: (03) 3270-1261 Fax: (03) 3270-4908
Contact: Mr. Atsuki Kondo, Director, General Affairs Division

To encourage imports of products and services, Japan's major public financing institutions, such as the Export-Import Bank of Japan and the Japan Development Bank, extend financing with favorable terms and conditions to foreign companies. Detailed information can be obtained from:

The Export-Import Bank of Japan
Representative Office
2000 Pennsylvania Ave., N.W., Suite 3350
Washington, D.C. 20006
Phone: (202) 331-8547

The Japan Development Bank
Washington D.C. Representative Office
1101-17th Street, N.W., Suite 1001, Washington D.C. 20036
Phone: (202) 331-8696

For more market information and business counseling, please contact: The Commercial Section of the U.S. Embassy, Tokyo (CS Tokyo) 1-10-5 Akasaka Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-0842 Japan

Mr. Kenneth B. Reidbord, Commercial Attache
Phone: 81/3/3224-5942

Mr. Kozo Nakada, Commercial Specialist
Phone: 81/3/3224-5082

Fax: 81/3/3589-4235

Key Contacts

National Government Institutions

Environmental Research and Technology Division
Planning and Coordination Bureau
Environment Agency
1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100
Phone: (03) 3581-3351 (ext. 6243) Fax: (03) 3580-3542
Contact: Mr. Akihiko Ishikawa, Director

Soil and Agricultural Chemicals Division
Water Quality Bureau
Environment Agency
1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100
Phone: (03) 3581-3351 Fax: (03) 3593-1438
Contact: Mr. Takeshi Nishio, Director

Water Pollution Control Division
Water Quality Bureau
Environment Agency
1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45
Phone: 03-3580-3172 Fax: 03-3501-2717
Contact: Mr. Hiroshi Hatano, Director

Water Quality Management Division
Water Quality Bureau
Environment Agency
1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100
Phone: (03) 3580-3171 Fax: (03) 3580-2717
Contact: Mr. Seiji Ikkatai, Director

Office of Industrial Waste Management
Water supply and Environmental Sanitation Department
Ministry of Health and Welfare
1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45
Phone: 03-3595-2372 Fax: 03-3501-0040
Contact: Mr. Masao Nii, Director

Water Supply Division
Water supply and Environmental Sanitation Department
Ministry of Health and Welfare
1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45
Phone: 03-3595-2368 Fax: 03-3503-7963
Contact: Mr. Kazuyoshi Okazawa, Director

Environmental Policy Division
Environmental Protection and Industrial Location Bureau
Ministry of International Trade and Industry
1-3-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-45
Phone: 03-3501-1679 Fax: 03-3501-7697
Contact: Mr. Tetsuya Sato, Director

National Institute of Bioscience and Human-Technology
1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaragi-ken 305
Phone: (0298) 54-6000 Fax: (0298) 54-6009
Contact: Mr. Shinichi Ohashi, Director

National Institute for Environmental Studies
16-2 Onokawa, Tsukubashi, Ibaragi-ken 305, Japan
Phone: 0298-50-2318 Fax: 0298-51-4732
Contact: Mr. Teruo Saito, Manager, General Affairs Div.

Clean Japan Center
3-6-2 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105
Phone: (03) 3432-6301 Fax: (03) 3432-6319
Contact: Mr. Yosuke Nakashima, Advisor

Industry Associations/Professional Societies

Geo-Environmental Protection Center
Mita KM Bldg., 5th Fl.
4-4-5 Shiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0014
Contact: Mr. Toshiaki Kodama, Executive Managing Director
Phone: (03)3452-2593 Fax: (03) 3452-2832

Japan Association of Environmental Assessment
4F Arche Kojimachi Bldg., 1-10-13 Kojimachi
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102
Phone: (03) 3230-3583 Fax: (03) 3230-3876
Contact: Mr. Sadao Shimizu, Secretary General

Japan Environmental Management Association for Industry
Hirokoji NDK Bldg.
1-17-6 Ueno, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110
Phone: (03) 3832-7019 Fax: (03) 3832-7022
Contact: Mr. Tatsuo Hiratani, General Manager, International Affairs

Japan Environmental Measurement & Chemical Analysis Association
1-9-8 Irifune, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104
Phone: 03-3553-7207 Fax: 03-3297-1967
Contact: Mr. Manabu Tani, President

Japan Industrial Waste Technology Center
4-8-4 Nihonbashi Horidome-cho, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103
Phone: 03) 3668-6511 Fax: (03) 3668-6512
Contact: Mr. Satoshi Takeuchi, Managing Director

Japan Machinery Importers' Association
Koyo Bldg., 2-11-1 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105
Phone: 03-3503-9736 Fax: 03 -3503-9779
Contact: Mr. Ryohei Iketani, Manager, International Affairs

Japan Society of Air Pollution
1-29-8 Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160
Phone: (03) 3341-5632 Fax: (03) 3341-8224
Contact: Mr. Akira Fujii, Secretary General

Japan Society of Industrial Machinery Manufacturers
3-5-8 Shiba Koen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106
Phone: (03) 3434-6820 Fax: (03) 3434-4767
Contact: Mr. Atsuo Mizogami, Manager
Environment Equipment Division

Japan Society of Waste Management Experts
No. 2 Futaba Bldg., 5-13-11 Shiba
Minato-ku, Tokyo 105
Phone: (03) 3769-5099 Fax: (03) 3769-1492
Contact: Mr. Hidetoshi Kitawaki, Chairman, International Relation Committee

National Federation of Industrial Waste Management
Daini AB Bldg., 3-1-17 Roppongi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106
Phone: (03) 3224-0811 Fax: (03) 3224-0820
Contact: Mr. Takumi Sakaki, Secretary General

Society of Environmental Science, Japan
2-1-6 Sengen, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaragi-ken 305
Phone: (0298) 58-6120 Fax: (0298) 58-6120
Contact: Mr. Mitsumasa Okada, Managing Director

Potential Importers and JV Partners

Sumitomo Corporation
1-2-2 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100
Contact: Mr. Toshio Sera
Director, Planning & Coordination Dept.
Phone: 03/3217-7636 Fax: 03/3217-6998

Itochu Corporation
2-5-1 Kita Aoyama, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-77
Contact: Mr. Hisao Shimizu, Deputy General Manager
Department of Global Environment
Phone: 03/3497-7114 Fax: 03/3497-3114

Marubeni Corporation
4-2, Ohtemachi 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8088
Contact: Mr. Noriaki Aota, General Manager
Environmental & Chemical Machinery Dept.
Phone: 03/3282-3348 Fax: 03/3282-3407

Tomen Corporation
Kokusai Shin Akasaka Bldg., 14-27, Akasaka 2-chome,
Minato-ku, Tokyo 107
Contact: Mr. Satoru Takabayashi, Manager
Global Environment Office,
Phone: 03/3588-5691 Fax: 03/3588-9374

Hitachi Plant Engineering & Construction Co., Ltd.
1-13-2, Kita Ohtsuka, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 170
Contact: Mr. Masaaki Shirai, General Manager
Environmental Systems Group, Product Development Dept.
Phone: 03/3576-4158 Fax: 03/3910-1138

Sanyu Plant Service Co., Ltd.
1-8-21 Hashimotodai, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa 229
Phone: 0427/73-1431 Fax: 0427/72-3941
Contact: Kyoji Kimbara, Managing Director

Mitsubishi Oil Co., Ltd.
1-6-41 Konan, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108
Contact: Mr. Makoto Tsuchiya, Manager
SS Kaihatsu Center Sales Dept.
Phone: 03/3472-7837 Fax: 03/3450-0246

Showa Shell Sekiyu K.K.
2-3-2 Daiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo 135-8074
Contact: Mr. Yasushi Arahata, General Manager
R & D Division,
Phone: 03/5531-5651 Fax: 03/5531-5659

Nippon Recycling Systems Co., Ltd.
1F NRS Bldg., 4-30-1, Minami-Koenji, Suginami-ku, Tokyo 166
Contact: Mr. Katsutoshi Ichimada, President
Phone: 03/5306-0577 Fax: 03/5306-0579

ANT Industrial Co., Ltd.
5-26-3 Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105
Contact: Mr. Teruo Ohuchi, Managing Director
Phone: 03/3431-5423 Fax: 03/3431-1650

Bioindustry Center Co., Ltd.
Iijima Bldg., 2-4-4 Bakurocho, Nihonbashi, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103
Phone: (03) 3249-9636 Fax: (03) 3249-9635
Contact: Mr. Toshio Ueda, Chief Director

With Waste Japan Co., Ltd.
2-224-1, Ohnari-Machi, Ohmiya-Shi, Saitama-Ken, Japan 331
Contact: Fumihiko Yamada, President
Phone: 048-668-1414 Fax: 048-665-4801

BioFuture, Inc.
2-2-9 Shin-machi, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 154
Contact: Katsuyoshi Yoshioka, President
Phone: 03/3429-9627 Fax: 03/3429-9628

Trade Publications

The "Kankyo Shimbun" (The Environmental News)
Publisher: K.K. Kankyo Shimbun
Dai-Ichi Tomizawa Bldg., 3-1-13 Yotsuya
Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160
Phone: (03) 3359-5371 Fax: (03) 3351-1939
Contact: Mr. Masashi Fujimoto, Managing Director

The "Sampai Times" (The Industrial Wastes Times)
Publisher: Nippo Co., Ltd.
3-1-5 Misakicho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101
Phone: (03) 3262-3461 Fax: (03) 5276-4491
Contact: Mr. Kinya Hisatomi, Chief Editor

Publisher: Nihon Kogyo Shimbun (The Japan Industrial Daily)
1-7-2 Ohtemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100
Phone: (03) 3292-6131 Fax: (03) 3295-3991
Contact: Mr. Tomohiro Kawano, Advertising Manager

"Shigen Kankyo To Taisaku" (Journal of Environmental Pollution Control)
Publisher: Association for Environmental Pollution Control Inc.
1-7-244 Akasaka 9-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107
Phone: (03) 3404-5714 Fax: (03) 3404-5716
Contact: Mr. Masahiro Hoshino, Chief Editor

Trade Promotion Opportunities

"99 Waste Disposal Exhibition," May 25-28, 1999, Ariake, Tokyo
Frequency: Biannual
Organizer: Nippo Co., Ltd.
Phone: (03) 3262-3461 Fax: (03) 3297-3172
Contact: Mr. Hisatomi Kinya, Chief Editor

U.S. Pavilion at the "Environment Japan '99," October 20-23, 1999, Osaka
Organizer: U.S. Commercial Service Japan
Contact: Keith Kirkham, Commercial Attaché, U.S. Embassy Tokyo
Phone: (03) 3224-5082 Fax: (03) 3589-4235

"Wastec '99," November 23 -26, 1999, Ariake, Tokyo
Frequency: Annual
Organizer: International Convention Management, Inc.
Phone: (03) 5565-0531 Fax: (03) 5565-3397
Contact: Mr. Yoshihiko Kurihara, Sales Manager

U.S. Trade Center Tokyo Online

The U.S. Trade Center, Tokyo - Online is a Japanese-language, Internet-based tool for promoting American exports in the world's second largest economy. Through industry-specific "online exhibitions," U.S. companies can introduce a new product, refer Japanese inquiries, test the market, search for a representative or distributor, and supplement ongoing marketing efforts in Japan. Each company receives an attractive, individual webpage that includes a description of its products and services in Japanese, up to five captioned photographs, and a link to its own homepage. Viewers can send E-mail directly to the U.S. company or its Japanese agent. For more information please fax 81/3/3987-2447 or send E-mail to ustc@csjapan.doc.gov for application materials. To view a sample company webpage go to http://www.csjapan.doc.gov/online/or find more information on the Japanese market from other menus at www.csjapan.doc.gov.

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